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Central nervous system pericytes have critical and complex inductive, structural, and regulatory roles interacting with other cell types of the neurovascular unit, especially endothelial cells and astrocytes. Pericyte-endothelial interactions are particularly prominent for blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance, with profound effects on basement membrane and(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Multidrug resistance proteins (MDRs, including P-glycoproteins) are efflux pumps that serve important biological functions but hinder successful drug delivery to the CNS. Many chemotherapeutic agents, anti-epileptics, anti-HIV drugs, and opiates are substrates for MDRs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of MDRs in the endothelial cells(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a regulatory interface between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. However, BBB changes in obesity and metabolic syndrome have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that obesity reduces energy metabolism in the cerebral microvessels composing the BBB, reflected by downregulation of protein expression(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brain microvascular disorders, including cerebral microscopic hemorrhage, have high prevalence but few treatment options. To develop new strategies for these disorders, we analyzed the effects of several phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBECs). METHODS We modified barrier properties(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Although it is known that drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be hampered by efflux transport activity of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene product P-glycoprotein, it is not clear how inflammation regulates efflux transporters. In rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells of BBB origin, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF mainly(More)
Interleukin (IL)-15 receptors are present in the cerebral endothelia composing the blood-brain barrier where they show robust up-regulation by neuroinflammation. To determine how IL15 receptor subunits participate in the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of IL15, we performed confocal microscopic imaging and radioactive tracer uptake assays in(More)
MIF-1 (Pro-Leu-Gly-NH(2)) is a tripeptide for which the therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease and depression has been indicated by many studies. However, the cellular mechanisms of action of MIF-1 are not yet clear. Here, we show the specific brain regions responsive to MIF-1 treatment by c-Fos mapping, and determine the kinetics of cellular(More)
Significant evidence exists regarding altered CYP450 enzymes in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), although none exists for the phase II enzymes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of CRI on hepatic and renal UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Three groups of rats were included: CRI induced by the 5/6th nephrectomy model,(More)
The agouti viable yellow (A vy) spontaneous mutation generates an unusual mouse phenotype of agouti-colored coat and adult-onset obesity with metabolic syndrome. Persistent production of agouti signaling protein in A vy mice antagonizes melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus. To determine how this disruption of neuroendocrine circuits affects leptin(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The transcription factor NFkappaB is a major mediator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling. We determined the role of NFkappaB activation in regulatory changes of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) drug efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and proinflammatory cytokine receptors. METHODS We treated NFkappaB knockout and wildtype mice(More)