Chrysanthy Ikonomidou

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Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (competitive receptor antagonists, ion channel blockers, and glycine antagonists)--such as selfotel, aptiganel, eliprodil, licostinel and gavestinel--failed to show efficacy in clinical trials of stroke or traumatic brain injury. This failure has been attributed to the deficient properties of the(More)
Recent studies have shown that administration of ethanol to infant rats during the synaptogenesis period (first 2 weeks after birth), triggers extensive apoptotic neurodegeneration throughout many regions of the developing brain. While synaptogenesis is largely a postnatal phenomenon in rats, it occurs prenatally (last trimester of pregnancy) in humans.(More)
Intrinsic antioxidant defenses are important for neuronal longevity. We found that in rat neurons, synaptic activity, acting via NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling, boosted antioxidant defenses by making changes to the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin (Prx) system. Synaptic activity enhanced thioredoxin activity, facilitated the reduction of overoxidized Prxs and(More)
Substantial neurologic morbidity occurs in survivors of premature birth. Premature infants are exposed to partial oxygen pressures that are fourfold higher compared to intrauterine conditions, even if no supplemental oxygen is administered. Here we report that short exposures to nonphysiologic oxygen levels can trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in the(More)
The management of malignancies in humans constitutes a major challenge for contemporary medicine. Despite progress in chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, surgical measures, and radiation technologies, and in immunological and immunomodulatory approaches, humans continue to succumb to cancer due to tumor recurrence and metastatic disease. The(More)
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder of young humans. Each year 150,000 children in the United States experience their first seizure. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), used to treat seizures in children, infants, and pregnant women, cause cognitive impairment, microcephaly, and birth defects. The cause of unwanted effects of therapy with AEDs is(More)
Emerging evidence suggests a role for glutamate and its receptors in the biology of cancer. This study was designed to systematically analyze the expression of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subunits in various human cancer cell lines, compare expression levels to those in human brain tissue and, using electrophysiological techniques,(More)
Synaptic activity promotes resistance to diverse apoptotic insults, the mechanism behind which is incompletely understood. We show here that a coordinated downregulation of core components of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by neuronal activity forms a key part of the underlying mechanism. Activity-dependent protection against apoptotic insults is(More)
The developing rodent brain is vulnerable to pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors which can lead to severe and disseminated apoptotic neurodegeneration. Here, we show that systemic administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 to 7-day-old rats leads to impaired activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(More)
OBJECTIVE Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an early-onset encephalopathy resembling congenital viral infection that is characterized by basal ganglia calcifications, loss of white matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, and elevated interferon-alpha levels in the CSF. Studies have shown that AGS is an autosomal-recessive disease linked to(More)