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Programmed cell death (apoptosis) occurs during normal development of the central nervous system. However, the mechanisms that determine which neurons will succumb to apoptosis are poorly understood. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors for only a few hours during late fetal or early neonatal life triggered widespread apoptotic(More)
Structural damage of the human brain (perinatal damage, cerebral trauma, head injury, cerebrovascular and degenerative diseases, intracranial tumor, metabolic diseases, toxins, drug-induced seizures) may lead to chronic epilepsy in survivors. Epidemiologic analyses show that a considerable time-delay occurs between the exposure of the brain to injury and(More)
The deleterious effects of ethanol on the developing human brain are poorly understood. Here it is reported that ethanol, acting by a dual mechanism [blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and excessive activation of GABA(A) receptors], triggers widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat forebrain. Vulnerability(More)
Intrinsic antioxidant defenses are important for neuronal longevity. We found that in rat neurons, synaptic activity, acting via NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling, boosted antioxidant defenses by making changes to the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin (Prx) system. Synaptic activity enhanced thioredoxin activity, facilitated the reduction of overoxidized Prxs and(More)
Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (competitive receptor antagonists, ion channel blockers, and glycine antagonists)--such as selfotel, aptiganel, eliprodil, licostinel and gavestinel--failed to show efficacy in clinical trials of stroke or traumatic brain injury. This failure has been attributed to the deficient properties of the(More)
High-dose treatment with pilocarpine hydrochloride, a cholinergic muscarinic agonist, induces seizures in rodents following systemic or intracerebral administration. Pilocarpine seizures are characterized by a sequential development of behavioral patterns and electrographic activity. Hypoactivity, tremor, scratching, head bobbing, and myoclonic movements of(More)
The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species-mediated damage because of its high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, high rate of oxygen consumption, low concentrations of antioxidants, high content of metals catalyzing free radical formation, and large proportion of sensitive immature cells. In(More)
In the immature mammalian brain during a period of rapid growth (brain growth spurt/synaptogenesis period), neuronal apoptosis can be triggered by the transient blockade of glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, or the excessive activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptors. Apoptogenic agents include anesthetics (ketamine, nitrous(More)
Synaptic activity promotes resistance to diverse apoptotic insults, the mechanism behind which is incompletely understood. We show here that a coordinated downregulation of core components of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by neuronal activity forms a key part of the underlying mechanism. Activity-dependent protection against apoptotic insults is(More)
The developing rodent brain is vulnerable to pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors which can lead to severe and disseminated apoptotic neurodegeneration. Here, we show that systemic administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 to 7-day-old rats leads to impaired activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(More)