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Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicular nondescent, while in contrast, finasteride, an inhibitor of 5(More)
PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised concerns about possible health effects. Recently, we showed that the PBDE mixture,(More)
Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of plasticizer compounds that are widely used for many consumer product applications. Ten or more members of the PE class of compounds are known to induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and postnatal reproductive malformations by disrupting androgen production during the sexual differentiation period of(More)
Vinclozolin is a well-characterized antiandrogenic fungicide. It produces adverse effects when administered during sexual differentiation, and it alters reproductive function in adult male rats by acting as an androgen-antagonist. Two active metabolites of vinclozolin, M1 and M2, compete with natural androgens for the rat and human androgen receptors (ARs),(More)
Procymidone is a dicarboximide fungicide structurally related to the well-characterized fungicide vinclozolin. Vinclozolin metabolites bind to mammalian androgen receptors (AR) and act as AR antagonists, inhibiting androgen-dependent gene expression in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting AR-binding to DNA. The current study was designed to determine if(More)
Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fenholloway River in Florida displayed androgenic activity in vitro and to relate(More)
Chemicals that act as androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists or inhibit fetal steroidogenesis can induce reproductive malformations in humans and laboratory animals. Several environmental chemicals disrupt development in rats and/or rabbits at fetal concentrations at, or near, exposure levels seen in some segments of the human population. In rats,(More)
Over the last decade, research has examined the endocrine-disrupting action of various environmental pollutants, including hormones, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants, in sewage treatment plant effluent. Responding to the growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and the pollutants present in their wastewater (e.g., nutrients, pharmaceuticals,(More)
Little is known concerning the potential ecological effects of hormonally active substances associated with discharges from animal feeding operations. Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic anabolic steroid that is widely used in the United States to promote growth of beef cattle. Metabolites of trenbolone acetate include the stereoisomers 17alpha- and(More)
Prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR). We hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would reduce testosterone production and delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 31.3, 62.5, or 125 mg/kg/day of PCZ from postnatal day(More)