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Preventing initiation of tobacco product use, promoting cessation of tobacco use, and protecting the public from exposure to second hand smoke are recognised by the World Health organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and by the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) as the most effective approaches to reducing(More)
BACKGROUND  Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (Truvada) has demonstrated efficacy in placebo-controlled clinical trials involving men who have sex with men, high-risk heterosexuals, serodiscordant couples, and intravenous drug users. To assist in the real-world provision of PrEP, the Centers for Disease(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of the California Smokers' Helpline, an increasingly popular telephone program for tobacco cessation in California since 1992. As many states, regions, and nations are contemplating various telephone programs as part of large scale anti-tobacco campaigns, this paper presents a practical model. DESIGN The Helpline provides(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to job-related secondhand smoke represents a significant, but entirely preventable occupational health risk to non-smoking workers. This article examines trends in smoke-free workplace policies in North Carolina. We also examine whether workers comply with such policies. METHODS Data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey(More)
Telephone based tobacco cessation services, or quitlines, have become central components of many comprehensive tobacco control programmes. This paper provides an overview of their history, noting milestones in the growth of quitlines. Key factors in their worldwide adoption were solid evidence from clinical trials with large community samples and strong(More)
OBJECTIVE To reconstruct the local HIV-1 transmission network from 1996 to 2011 and use network data to evaluate and guide efforts to interrupt transmission. DESIGN HIV-1 pol sequence data were analyzed to infer the local transmission network. METHODS We analyzed HIV-1 pol sequence data to infer a partial local transmission network among 478 recently(More)
We present methods for estimating five-year birth-cohort-specific trends in smoking behavior for individuals born between 1910 and 1984. We combine cross-sectional survey data on smoking behavior from the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted between 1965 and 2001 into a single data set. The cumulative incidence of smoking by year of age and(More)
BACKGROUND  A low CD4/CD8 ratio in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is associated with inflammation and higher risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the effect of subclinical cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell dynamics when antiretroviral(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of smoking policies in indoor work environments in the United States, with a special focus on sex differences in the provision of these policies. METHOD Information on the prevalence and restrictiveness of workplace smoking policies was obtained from 86,490 currently employed indoor workers (50,865 women and 35,625(More)
BACKGROUND Physicians prescribing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or health plans covering NRT, often want their patients to receive adjuvant behavioral treatment. However, how to do that in a "real world" is unclear. This paper reports results from a public health program that uses proactive telephone counseling as support for physician advice and(More)