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We have examined the regression effect and its magnitude under the Gaussian distributional assumption. The impact and implication of regression to the mean on the analysis of medical investigations was discussed. For simplicity, we called the approach adjusting for the regression effect a two-stage procedure and noted its relationship to the analysis of(More)
Clinical trials that compare strategies to optimize antibiotic use are of critical importance but are limited by competing risks that distort outcome interpretation, complexities of noninferiority trials, large sample sizes, and inadequate evaluation of benefits and harms at the patient level. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group strives to(More)
Previous research demonstrated a relationship between transfusions of whole blood, or large numbers of red cell concentrates, and later recurrence of cancers of the colon, rectum, cervix, and prostate. It is possible that the transfusion of whole blood may represent a surrogate marker for advanced or more aggressive clinical disease. The relationship of(More)
In this paper, we examine three approaches for comparing several treatments with a control with use of binary response data. The first approach relies on asymptotic theory applied to the Freeman-Tukey transformation of the observed proportions. The second finds an acceptance region based on the binomial distributions estimated under the joint null(More)
A PhRMA Working Group on adaptive clinical trial designs has been formed to investigate and facilitate opportunities for wider acceptance and usage of adaptive designs and related methodologies. A White Paper summarizing the findings of the group is in preparation; this article is an Executive Summary for that full White Paper, and summarizes the findings(More)
Attrition is a ubiquitous problem in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) of psychotropic agents that can cause biased estimates of the treatment effect, reduce statistical power, and restrict the generalizability of results. The extent of the problem of attrition in central nervous system (CNS) trials is considered here and its consequences are(More)
Experience has shown us that when data are pooled from multiple studies to create an integrated summary, an analysis based on naïvely-pooled data is vulnerable to the mischief of Simpson's Paradox. Using the proportions of patients with a target adverse event (AE) as an example, we demonstrate the Paradox's effect on both the comparison and the estimation(More)
Assessing long-term efficacy in psychiatric drugs involves a number of complex questions, and the priaority of these questions is different for different disorders and for different stakeholders. Therefore, it is essential that we not adopt a one-method-fits-all approach, but rather adapt the specific details of the designs and analysis of data from(More)
There are many disorders where regulatory agencies have required a new treatment to demonstrate efficacy on multiple co-primary endpoints, all significant at the one-sided 2.5 per cent level, before accepting the treatment's effect for the disorder. This requirement, rooted in the intersection-union (IU) test, has led many researchers to increase the study(More)