Christos P. Carvounis

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BACKGROUND Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) has been used in the diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) to distinguish between the two main causes of ARF, prerenal state and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). However, many patients with prerenal disorders receive diuretics, which decrease sodium reabsorption and thus increase FENa. In contrast, the(More)
Vasopressin activates a number of transport systems in the toad bladder, including the systems for water, urea, sodium, and other small solutes. Evidence from experiments with selective inhibitors indicates that these transport systems are to a large extent functionally independent. In the present study, we show that the transport systems can be separately(More)
In renal failure, blood urea nitrogen and serumcreatinine usually rise in tandem; the normalBUN : Cr ratio is 10–15 : 1. Disproportionate risesin BUN : Cr (> 20 : 1) often imply pre-renalazotemia but may be caused by increased proteincatabolism or an excessive protein load. Inthis study we looked at intensive care patientswho acutely developed markedly(More)
Few studies are available with sufficient sample size to accurately describe the prevalence of low ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients at 'non-high' cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as determined by using ABI, in this patient population. A non-interventional,(More)
It is commonly believed that the electrolyte pattern in the patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with high anion gap (AG) and low serum bicarbonate (HCO3). However it was seen in many clinical studies that the AG is normal or only minimally increased in such patients. It is also known that organic cations, in particular guanidines, also(More)
BACKGROUND The serum anion gap (serum [Na(+)]-Cl(-)]-[CO(2)]) is still the first-line approach to metabolic acidosis. However, while it is generally acknowledged that hypoalbuminemia mandates a downward adjustment of the expected anion gap, a specific correction factor for the anion gap in the face of low serum albumin has never been demonstrated. METHODS(More)
Uncontrolled infection quite often leads to systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) syndrome. Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 males) fulfilling strict diagnostic criteria for SIRS were enrolled in two multicenter prospective double-blind trials involving new therapies for SIRS. The patients were followed(More)
BACKGROUND Prediction of which intensive care unit (ICU) patients are likely to develop acute renal failure (ARF) would be useful. However, scoring systems such as APACHE have been disappointing in this regard. We previously developed a bedside formula to predict ARF using only 3 parameters: serum albumin, urine osmolality, and presence of sepsis. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE In view of the limitations of albumin in peritoneal dialysis (PD), we set out to evaluate whether total lymphocyte counts (TLC) could serve as a better prognostic indicator. We were also interested in how these parameters might differ between PD and hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN In a retrospective study, we reviewed 113 charts from our(More)