Christos M. Tsoukas

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BACKGROUND Successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases levels of CD4+ T-cells, however this increase may not accurately reflect long-term immune recovery since T-cell dysregulation and loss of T-cell homeostasis often persist. We therefore assessed the impact of a decade of effective cART on immune regulation, T-cell homeostasis, and(More)
Despite the proven clinical benefits of HAART, mortality may still occur; particularly in those with less than 50 CD4+ cells/mL and, in some cases, with a viral burden below detectable plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA. Multiple factors may predict mortality including initial response to therapy, viral factors and host immune parameters. Due to the complexity of(More)
BACKGROUND Elite controllers (EC) are a rare subset of HIV infected individuals who control viral load below 50 copies/ml of plasma without treatment. METHODS Thirty four EC were studied. The slope of CD4 count change was available for 25 of these subjects. We assessed immune activation by measuring the percent of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells in the EC group(More)
BACKGROUND Viral load (VL) monitoring is an essential component of the care of HIV positive individuals. Rates of VL monitoring have been shown to vary by HIV risk factor and clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences among regions in Canada in the rates of VL testing of HIV-positive individuals on(More)
INTRODUCTION Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly decreases morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. We aimed to characterize the timing of ART initiation based on CD4 cell count from 2000 to 2012 and identify factors associated with late initiation of treatment. METHODS Participants from the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC), a(More)
BACKGROUND Despite successful treatment and CD4+ T-cell recovery, HIV-infected individuals often experience a profound immune dysregulation characterized by a persistently low CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio. This residual immune dysregulation is reminiscent of the Immune Risk Phenotype (IRP) previously associated with morbidity and mortality in the uninfected elderly(More)
BACKGROUND The selection of agents for any treatment regimen is in part influenced by physician and patient attitudes. This study investigated attitudinal motivators and barriers to the use of self-injectable antiretroviral agents among physicians and patients and measured the degree of concordance between physician and patient perspectives. METHODS(More)
The relative energy between two different protonation sites of the Asp25' catalytic site residue is computed and analyzed for various HIV-1 Protease/inhibitor complexes and compared to the wild-type structure. By comparing calculations of negatively charged fragments of gradually increasing size up to 105 atoms we show that correct modeling of the HIV-1(More)
Surrogate markers are by definition quantifiable laboratory variables that have clinical and biological relevance to disease outcomes. Virologic and immunologic surrogate markers have proven useful in following HIV-associated viral burden, immune dysregulation, dysfunction and deficiency. Monitoring of sequential changes in these markers and their(More)
BACKGROUND Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to dramatically decrease progression to AIDS, premature death and HIV transmission. However, there are no comprehensive data regarding combination antiretroviral therapy outcomes among this(More)