Christos M. Tsoukas

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OBJECTIVE Prolonged treatment with antiretroviral drugs results in the selection of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI) or to protease inhibitors (PI). There is serious concern about transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons. This study(More)
OBJECTIVES Natural killer (NK) cell activity is increased in individuals who remain uninfected despite repeated exposures to HIV. Given that a combined major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) KIR3D genotype has been linked to rate of HIV disease progression, we assessed whether these genotypes played a(More)
Subcutaneous administration of intravenous immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations provides an additional level of patient convenience and more options for patients with poor venous access or a history of intravenous IgG reactions. An open-label, pharmacokinetic trial (n = 32) determined the non-inferiority of the subcutaneous versus intravenous route of 10%(More)
BACKGROUND Bacteremia with the Mycobacterium avium complex is common in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but the most effective treatment for this infection remains unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 229 patients with AIDS and M. avium complex bacteremia to receive either rifampin (600 mg daily), ethambutol (approximately 15(More)
Both the magnitude and breadth of HIV-specific immunity were evaluated longitudinally on samples collected from six subjects starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) preseroconversion (group 1), 11 recently infected subjects starting HAART postseroconversion (group 2), five subjects starting HAART in the second half of the first year of(More)
Carriage of the natural killer (NK) receptor genotype KIR3DL1*h/*y with its HLA-B*57 ligand (*h/*y+B*57) is associated with slow time to AIDS and low viral load (VL). To provide a functional basis for these epidemiological observations, we assessed whether HIV-1-infected slow progressors (SP) carrying the *h/*y+B*57 compound genotype would have increased NK(More)
The hypothesis was investigated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection behaves like an opportunistic infection in which progressive liver disease (PLD) is the principal manifestation. PLD in 81 hemophiliacs coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was compared with 53 HIV-seronegative HCV-infected hemophiliacs. Progression to AIDS and(More)
The cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G has been identified as a host factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication. We investigated whether genetic variants of APOBEC3G that could potentially affect the protein's expression or function were associated with the risk of infection in 122 Caucasians highly exposed to HIV-1. A novel C40693T variant was significantly(More)
OBJECTIVES Coexpression of certain combinations of natural killer cell receptor KIR3DL1 and HLA-B alleles is associated with slower time to AIDS. The strongest protection in terms of disease outcome in KIR3DL1 homozygotes (3DL1 hmz) is coexpression of HLA-B*57 and a set of KIR3DL1 genotypes (3DL1*h/*y) lacking alleles expressed at low levels on natural(More)