Christos M. Tsoukas

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Growth and differentiation of thymocytes and mature T lymphocytes is regulated by cellular interactions that are in part mediated by soluble factors. We identify IL-6, formerly called B cell stimulating factor (BSF-2). IFN-beta 2, or hybridoma-plasmacytoma growth factor (HPGF) as a novel T cell costimulant rIL-6 induced a six-to seven-fold increase in(More)
Evidences have recently suggested that the preservation of vaccine-induced memory rather than effector T cells is essential for better outcome and survival following pathogenic SIV challenge in macaques. However, an equivalent demonstration in humans is missing, and the immune correlates of HIV-1 control have been only partially characterized. We focused on(More)
This study has determined the effect of liposomal encapsulation on the hematopoietic toxicity and antiviral activity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) in mice. Daily intravenous administration in the dose range 0.4 to 10 mg/kg body weight for 5 days significantly depressed bone marrow cellularity with a corresponding decrease in red blood cell, blood(More)
BACKGROUND Successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases levels of CD4+ T-cells, however this increase may not accurately reflect long-term immune recovery since T-cell dysregulation and loss of T-cell homeostasis often persist. We therefore assessed the impact of a decade of effective cART on immune regulation, T-cell homeostasis, and(More)
Despite the proven clinical benefits of HAART, mortality may still occur; particularly in those with less than 50 CD4+ cells/mL and, in some cases, with a viral burden below detectable plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA. Multiple factors may predict mortality including initial response to therapy, viral factors and host immune parameters. Due to the complexity of(More)
BACKGROUND Elite controllers (EC) are a rare subset of HIV infected individuals who control viral load below 50 copies/ml of plasma without treatment. METHODS Thirty four EC were studied. The slope of CD4 count change was available for 25 of these subjects. We assessed immune activation by measuring the percent of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells in the EC group(More)
BACKGROUND Viral load (VL) monitoring is an essential component of the care of HIV positive individuals. Rates of VL monitoring have been shown to vary by HIV risk factor and clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences among regions in Canada in the rates of VL testing of HIV-positive individuals on(More)
INTRODUCTION Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly decreases morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. We aimed to characterize the timing of ART initiation based on CD4 cell count from 2000 to 2012 and identify factors associated with late initiation of treatment. METHODS Participants from the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC), a(More)
BACKGROUND Despite successful treatment and CD4+ T-cell recovery, HIV-infected individuals often experience a profound immune dysregulation characterized by a persistently low CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio. This residual immune dysregulation is reminiscent of the Immune Risk Phenotype (IRP) previously associated with morbidity and mortality in the uninfected elderly(More)
BACKGROUND The selection of agents for any treatment regimen is in part influenced by physician and patient attitudes. This study investigated attitudinal motivators and barriers to the use of self-injectable antiretroviral agents among physicians and patients and measured the degree of concordance between physician and patient perspectives. METHODS(More)