Christos Haralambous

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Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread severe disease, with an increasing incidence of two million cases per year and 350 million people from 88 countries at risk. The causative agents are species of Leishmania, a protozoan flagellate. Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated, is caused by species of the(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region, South America, and China. MON-1 L. infantum is the predominating zymodeme in all endemic regions, both in humans and dogs, the reservoir host. In order to answer important epidemiological questions it is essential to discriminate(More)
We have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective typing method, based on the amplicon size of the K26 gene, capable of species/strain discrimination of Leishmania donovani complex strains causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It was evaluated on 112 strains and compared with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) typing. The K26 polymerase(More)
In Cyprus, leishmaniasis has been considered exclusively a veterinary problem. It was prevalent before 1945, and until its recent reemergence, it was nearly eradicated by 1996 as a consequence of the destruction of reservoir hosts and vectors. A survey carried out to provide an unbiased estimate of current transmission rates in dogs and humans showed a(More)
The dynamic re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south Europe and the northward shift to Leishmania-free European countries are well-documented. However, the epidemiology of VL due to Leishmania infantum in southeastern (SE) Europe and the Balkans is inadequately examined. Herein, we aim to re-evaluate and compare the population structure of L.(More)
Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was employed to compare strains of Leishmania donovani belonging to the MON-37 zymodeme (MON-37 strains) from Cyprus and Israel to MON-37 strains from the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, China and East Africa as well as strains of other zymodemes. The MLMT data were processed with a distance-based method for(More)
As in the countries edging the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1 is the main causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco, where visceral leishmaniasis is most active in the North-Eastern slopes of the Rif mountains. The dog was confirmed to be the main reservoir of L. infantum MON-1, while the reservoir of L. infantum MON-24(More)
BACKGROUND New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum) situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) using the Montpellier (MON) system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37.(More)
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