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Renal cell carcinoma is characterized by an accumulation of complex chromosomal alterations during tumor progression. Chromosome 3p deletions are known to occur early in the carcinogenesis, but the nature of subsequent events, their interrelationships, and their sequence is poorly understood, as one usually only obtains a single "view" of the dynamic(More)
Cancer geneticists seek to identify genetic changes in tumor cells and to relate the genetic changes to tumor development. Because single changes can disrupt the cell cycle and promote other genetic changes, it is extremely hard to distinguish cause from effect. In this article we illustrate how 7 techniques from statistics, theoretical computer science,(More)
In a system where noncooperative agents share a common resource, we propose the price of anarchy, which is the ratio between the worst possible Nash equilibrium and the social optimum, as a measure of the effectiveness of the system. Deriving upper and lower bounds for this ratio in a model where several agents share a very simple network leads to some(More)
We define a natural variant of NP, MAX NP, and also a subclass called MAX SNP. These are classes of optimization problems, and in fact contain several natural, well-studied ones. We show that problems in these classes can be approximated with some bounded error. Furthermore, we show that a number of common optimization problems are complete for MAXSNP under(More)
This book is an introduction, on the undergraduate level, to the classical and contemporary theor y of computation. The topics covered are, in a few words, the theory of automata and formal languages , computability by Turing machines and recursive functions, uncomputability, computationa l complexity, and mathematical logic. The treatment is mathematical(More)
Comparative genome hybridization (CGH) is a laboratory method to measure gains and losses of chromosomal regions in tumor cells. It is believed that DNA gains and losses in tumor cells do not occur entirely at random, but partly through some flow of causality. Models that relate tumor progression to the occurrence of DNA gains and losses could be very(More)
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a laboratory method to measure gains and losses in the copy number of chromosomal regions in tumor cells. It is hypothesized that certain DNA gains and losses are related to cancer progression and that the patterns of these changes are relevant to the clinical consequences of the cancer. It is therefore of interest(More)