Christos Chinopoulos

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Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production,(More)
Mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was determined in intact isolated nerve terminals using the membrane potential-sensitive probe JC-1. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 (0.1-1 mM) caused only a minor decrease in delta psi(m). When complex I of the respiratory chain was inhibited by rotenone (2 microM), delta psi(m) was unaltered, but on(More)
Acute ischemic and brain injury is triggered by excitotoxic elevation of intraneuronal Ca2+ followed by reoxygenation-dependent oxidative stress, metabolic failure, and cell death. Studies performed in vitro with neurons exposed to excitotoxic concentrations of glutamate demonstrate an initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], followed by a reduction to a normal,(More)
The contribution of mitochondria to the manifestation of disease is ascribed largely to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are obligatory by-products of aerobiosis. Studies using isolated mitochondria have revealed multiple potential sites and circumstances of ROS production but the relevance of these to in situ conditions is limited. In(More)
Aspartate N-acetyltransferase (Asp-NAT; EC 2.3.1.17) activity was found in highly purified intact mitochondria prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation as well as in the three subfractions obtained after the sucrose density gradient centrifugation of Percoll purified mitochondria; citrate synthase was used as a marker enzyme for mitochondria. The(More)
Mitochondria are both targets and sources of oxidative stress. This dual relationship is particularly evident in experimental paradigms modeling ischemic brain injury. One mitochondrial metabolic enzyme that is particularly sensitive to oxidative inactivation is pyruvate dehydrogenase. This reaction is extremely important in the adult CNS that relies very(More)
The term mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is commonly used to indicate an abrupt increase in the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to low molecular weight solutes. Widespread MPT has catastrophic consequences for the cell, de facto marking the boundary between cellular life and death. MPT results indeed in the structural and(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction, due to either environmental or genetic factors, can result in excessive production of reactive oxygen species, triggering the apoptotic death of dopaminergic cells in Parkinson's disease. Mitochondrial free radical production is promoted by the inhibition of electron transport at any point distal to the sites of superoxide(More)
In pathological conditions, F(0)F(1)-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP in an attempt to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential. Using thermodynamic assumptions and computer modeling, we established that mitochondrial membrane potential can be more negative than the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) but more positive than that of the(More)