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Mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was determined in intact isolated nerve terminals using the membrane potential-sensitive probe JC-1. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 (0.1-1 mM) caused only a minor decrease in delta psi(m). When complex I of the respiratory chain was inhibited by rotenone (2 microM), delta psi(m) was unaltered, but on(More)
Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production,(More)
Aspartate N-acetyltransferase (Asp-NAT; EC activity was found in highly purified intact mitochondria prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation as well as in the three subfractions obtained after the sucrose density gradient centrifugation of Percoll purified mitochondria; citrate synthase was used as a marker enzyme for mitochondria. The(More)
Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) is a central intermediate in oxidative energy metabolism. Although ΔΨM is routinely measured qualitatively or semi-quantitatively using fluorescent probes, its quantitative assay in intact cells has been limited mostly to slow, bulk-scale radioisotope distribution methods. Here we derive and verify a biophysical model(More)
Deficiency of complex I in the respiratory chain and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide occur simultaneously in dopaminergic neurones in Parkinson's disease. Here we demonstrate that the membrane potential of in situ mitochondria (Delta Psi m), as measured by the fluorescence change of JC-l(More)
The effect of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon (FCCP) was studied on the intracellular [Na+], pH, and plasma membrane potential in isolated nerve terminals. FCCP induced a rise of [Na+]i at, and even below, the concentrations (0.025-1 microM) in which it is usually used in intact cells to eliminate Ca2+ uptake by(More)
Exposure of neurones in culture to excitotoxic levels of glutamate results in an initial transient spike in [Ca2+]i followed by a delayed, irreversible [Ca2+]i rise governed by rapid kinetics, with Ca2+ originating from the extracellular medium. The molecular mechanism responsible for the secondary Ca2+ rise is unknown. Here, we report that the delayed Ca2+(More)
We have explored the consequences of a [Na(+)](i) load and oxidative stress in isolated nerve terminals. The Na(+) load was achieved by veratridine (5-40 microM), which allows Na(+) entry via a voltage-operated Na(+) channel, and oxidative stress was induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.1-0.5 mM). Remarkably, neither the [Na(+)](i) load nor exposure to H(2)O(2)(More)
Large and protracted elevations of intracellular [Ca(2+)] and [Na(+)] play a crucial role in neuronal injury in ischemic conditions. In addition to excessive glutamate receptor activation, other ion channels may contribute to disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis. During episodes of ischemia, extracellular [Ca(2+)] falls significantly. Here we(More)
In this study, we compared the protective effect of bilobalide, a purified terpene lactone component of ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, (definition see editorial) and EGb 761 against ischemic injury and against glutamate-induced excitotoxic neuronal death. In ischemic injury, we measured neuronal loss and the levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded(More)