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Mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was determined in intact isolated nerve terminals using the membrane potential-sensitive probe JC-1. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 (0.1-1 mM) caused only a minor decrease in delta psi(m). When complex I of the respiratory chain was inhibited by rotenone (2 microM), delta psi(m) was unaltered, but on(More)
The contribution of mitochondria to the manifestation of disease is ascribed largely to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are obligatory by-products of aerobiosis. Studies using isolated mitochondria have revealed multiple potential sites and circumstances of ROS production but the relevance of these to in situ conditions is limited. In(More)
Acute ischemic and brain injury is triggered by excitotoxic elevation of intraneuronal Ca2+ followed by reoxygenation-dependent oxidative stress, metabolic failure, and cell death. Studies performed in vitro with neurons exposed to excitotoxic concentrations of glutamate demonstrate an initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], followed by a reduction to a normal,(More)
Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production,(More)
Aspartate N-acetyltransferase (Asp-NAT; EC 2.3.1.17) activity was found in highly purified intact mitochondria prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation as well as in the three subfractions obtained after the sucrose density gradient centrifugation of Percoll purified mitochondria; citrate synthase was used as a marker enzyme for mitochondria. The(More)
A novel method exploiting the differential affinity of ADP and ATP to Mg(2+) was developed to measure mitochondrial ADP-ATP exchange rate. The rate of ATP appearing in the medium after addition of ADP to energized mitochondria, is calculated from the measured rate of change in free extramitochondrial [Mg(2+)] reported by the membrane-impermeable 5K(+) salt(More)
Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) is a central intermediate in oxidative energy metabolism. Although ΔΨM is routinely measured qualitatively or semi-quantitatively using fluorescent probes, its quantitative assay in intact cells has been limited mostly to slow, bulk-scale radioisotope distribution methods. Here we derive and verify a biophysical model(More)
Mutations in the heart and muscle isoform of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) are associated with autosomal-dominant progressive external opthalmoplegia (adPEO) clinically characterized by exercise intolerance, ptosis and muscle weakness. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial myopathy caused by ANT1 mutations remain largely unknown.(More)
The term mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is commonly used to indicate an abrupt increase in the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to low molecular weight solutes. Widespread MPT has catastrophic consequences for the cell, de facto marking the boundary between cellular life and death. MPT results indeed in the structural and(More)
The interplay among reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, elevated intracellular calcium concentration and mitochondrial demise is a recurring theme in research focusing on brain pathology, both for acute and chronic neurodegenerative states. However, causality, extent of contribution or the sequence of these events prior to cell death is not yet firmly(More)