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Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores represents an important cell signalling process that is regulated, in mammalian cells, by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)), cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). InsP(3) and cyclic ADP ribose cause the release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stores(More)
1. The effect has been examined of the accessory alpha2-delta and beta subunits on the properties of alpha1G currents expressed in monkey COS-7 cells and Xenopus oocytes. 2. In immunocytochemical experiments, the co-expression of alpha2-delta increased plasma membrane localization of expressed alpha1G and conversely, the heterologous expression of alpha1G(More)
Disease is among the suspected causes of amphibian population declines, and an iridovirus and a chytrid fungus are the primary pathogens associated with amphibian mortalities. Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) and a closely related strain, Regina ranavirus (RRV), are implicated in salamander die-offs in Arizona and Canada, respectively. We report the complete(More)
This paper presents registration via embedded maps (REM), a deformable registration algorithm for images with varying topology. The algorithm represents 3-D images as 4-D manifolds in a Riemannian space (referred to as embedded maps). Registration is performed as a surface evolution matching one embedded map to another using a diffusion process. The(More)
Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones. Transmitter release is dependent on voltage-gated Ca2+ entry which is evoked by membrane depolarization. This excitatory response to hypoxia is initiated by inhibition of specific O2 sensitive K+ channels, of(More)
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to study voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents in type I carotid body cells of young rats born and reared in normoxia or in a chronically hypoxic (CH) environment (10% O2). Currents activated at potentials of -40 mV and more positive, and typically peaked at 0 mV in both groups of cells. Steady-state inactivation(More)
Electrophysiological responses of enzymatically isolated type I cells from the neonatal rat carotid body to cholinergic agonists were examined using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Inward currents were evoked in cells clamped at -70 mV in response to bath-applied carbachol and two selective nicotinic agonists, nicotine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium.(More)
The actions of two structurally related tricyclic antidepressants on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were investigated in human neuroblastoma (SY-SY5Y) cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Both desipramine and imipramine reversibly inhibited inward currents evoked by application of the nicotinic receptor agonist(More)
The carotid body's physiological role is to sense arterial oxygen, CO(2) and pH. It is however, also powerfully excited by inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. This latter observation is the cornerstone of the mitochondrial hypothesis which proposes that oxygen is sensed through changes in energy metabolism. All of these stimuli act in a similar manner,(More)
1. Ca(2+)-activated K+ (K+Ca) channels in neonatal rat type I carotid body cells were studied using single channel patch clamp techniques. In outside-out patches, using symmetrical 120 mM [K+] solutions, channels were observed with a slope conductance of 190 pS and a reversal potential of 0 mV. Reducing [K+]o to 5 mM shifted the reversal potential as(More)