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In April 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1 2009) virus emerged that rapidly spread around the world. While current variants of this virus have caused widespread disease, particularly in vulnerable groups, there remains the possibility that future variants may cause increased virulence, drug resistance or vaccine escape. Early detection of these virus variants(More)
Mutations in the SARS-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) can alter its clinical presentation, and the study of its mutation patterns in human populations can facilitate contact tracing. Here, we describe the development and validation of an oligonucleotide resequencing array for interrogating the entire 30-kb SARS-CoV genome in a rapid, cost-effective fashion. Using(More)
In this study, we examined the hypothesis that early pulmonary metastases form within the vasculature. We introduced primary tumors in immunocompromised mice by subcutaneous injection of murine breast carcinoma cells (4T1) expressing green fluorescent protein. Isolated ventilated and perfused lungs from these mice were examined at various times after tumor(More)
Aggressive forms of cancer are often defined by recurrent chromosomal alterations, yet in most cases, the causal or contributing genetic components remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized microarray informatics to identify candidate oncogenes potentially contributing to aggressive breast cancer behavior. We identified the Rab-coupling protein RCP (also(More)
DNA microarrays used as 'genomic sensors' have great potential in clinical diagnostics. Biases inherent in random PCR-amplification, cross-hybridization effects, and inadequate microarray analysis, however, limit detection sensitivity and specificity. Here, we have studied the relationships between viral amplification efficiency, hybridization signal, and(More)
BACKGROUND From June 22 through June 25, 2009, four outbreaks of infection with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus occurred in Singapore military camps. We report the efficacy of ring chemoprophylaxis (geographically targeted containment by means of prophylaxis) with oseltamivir to control outbreaks of 2009 H1N1 influenza in semiclosed environments. (More)
An oseltamivir-resistant influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus evolved and emerged from zero to 52% of detectable virus within 48 hours of a patient's exposure to oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analysis and data gathered by pyrosequencing and cloning directly on clinical samples suggest that the mutant emerged de novo.
Determining the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections (RTI) has been limited for the most part to specific primer PCR-based methods due to their increased sensitivity and specificity compared to other methods, such as tissue culture. However, specific primer approaches have limited the ability to fully understand the diversity of infecting(More)
The presence of metastases indicates an ominous prognosis in patients with malignancies, yet the factors that distinguish metastatic from non-metastatic tumors remain poorly understood. Here we pursued the hypothesis that apoptosis in vivo would distinguish metastatic cells from non-metastatic cells and developed a novel method for observation of apoptosis(More)