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In October 1999, H4N6 influenza A viruses were isolated from pigs with pneumonia on a commercial swine farm in Canada. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral RNA segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the North American lineage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an(More)
Since 1998, H3N2 viruses have caused epizootics of respiratory disease in pigs throughout the major swine production regions of the U.S. These outbreaks are remarkable because swine influenza in North America had previously been caused almost exclusively by H1N1 viruses. We sequenced the full-length protein coding regions of all eight RNA segments from four(More)
BACKGROUND Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. METHODS We performed controlled, cross-sectional(More)
An H1N2 influenza A virus was isolated from a pig in the United States for the first time in 1999 (A. I. Karasin, G. A. Anderson, and C. W. Olsen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:2453-2456, 2000). H1N2 viruses have been isolated subsequently from pigs in many states. Phylogenetic analyses of eight such viruses isolated from pigs in Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota,(More)
An H1N2 influenza virus was isolated from a pig during an outbreak of respiratory disease and abortion on an Indiana farm in November 1999. Results of phylogenetic analyses indicate that this virus is a reassortant between a recent classical H1 swine virus and the reassortant H3N2 viruses that have emerged among American pigs since 1998.
As the threat of a pandemic looms, improvement in our understanding of interspecies transmission of influenza is necessary. Using the search terms "swine," "influenza," and "human," we searched the PubMed database in April 2006 to identify publications describing symptomatic infections of humans with influenza viruses of swine origin. From these reports, we(More)
Molecular and antigenic analyses of three influenza viruses isolated from outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds revealed that they are closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the canine influenza virus genomes form a monophyletic group, consistent with a single interspecies virus transfer.(More)
An H1N2 influenza virus (A/Duck/North Carolina/91347/01) (Dk/NC) was isolated from a wild duck in the United States in 2001. Genetic analyses showed that this duck virus has the same human/classical swine/avian reassortant genotype as the H1N2 viruses that have been isolated from pigs and turkeys in the US since 1999. Phylogenetic analyses of each gene(More)
Influenza virus infection in pigs is both an animal health problem and a public health concern. As such, surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses in swine is important to the veterinary community and should be a part of human pandemic preparedness planning. Studies in 1976/1977 and 1988/1989 demonstrated that pigs in the U.S. were commonly(More)