Christopher W. Bishop

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The brain uses context and prior knowledge to repair degraded sensory inputs and improve perception. For example, listeners hear speech continuing uninterrupted through brief noises, even if the speech signal is artificially removed from the noisy epochs. In a functional MRI study, we show that this temporal filling-in process is based on two dissociable(More)
In noisy environments, listeners tend to hear a speaker's voice yet struggle to understand what is said. The most effective way to improve intelligibility in such conditions is to watch the speaker's mouth movements. Here we identify the neural networks that distinguish understanding from merely hearing speech, and determine how the brain applies visual(More)
OBJECTIVE To reduce stimulus transduction artifacts in EEG while using insert earphones. DESIGN Reference Equivalent Threshold SPLs were assessed for Etymotic ER-4B earphones in 15 volunteers. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and middle latency responses (MLRs)-as well as long-duration complex ABRs-to click and /dα/ speech stimuli were recorded in a(More)
Reference values for the mid-upper arm muscle area, mid-upper arm fat area, subscapular skinfold thickness, and sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses of American adults were developed from data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics during the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971 to 1974. The reference(More)
Segregating auditory scenes into distinct objects or streams is one of our brain's greatest perceptual challenges. Streaming has classically been studied with bistable sound stimuli, perceived alternately as a single group or two separate groups. Throughout the last decade different methodologies have yielded inconsistent evidence about the role of auditory(More)
The human brain uses acoustic cues to decompose complex auditory scenes into its components. For instance to improve communication, a listener can select an individual "stream," such as a talker in a crowded room, based on cues such as pitch or location. Despite numerous investigations into auditory streaming, few have demonstrated clear correlates of(More)
Auditory spatial perception plays a critical role in day-to-day communication. For instance, listeners utilize acoustic spatial information to segregate individual talkers into distinct auditory "streams" to improve speech intelligibility. However, spatial localization is an exceedingly difficult task in everyday listening environments with numerous(More)