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Model predictive control is a form of control in which the current control action is obtained by solving, at each sampling instant, a "nite horizon open-loop optimal control problem, using the current state of the plant as the initial state; the optimization yields an optimal control sequence and the "rst control in this sequence is applied to the plant. An(More)
—State estimator design for a nonlinear discrete-time system is a challenging problem, further complicated when additional physical insight is available in the form of inequality constraints on the state variables and disturbances. One strategy for constrained state estimation is to employ online optimization using a moving horizon approximation. In this(More)
Biochemical dynamics are often determined by series of single molecule events such as gene expression and reactions involving protein concentrations at nanomolar concentrations. Molecular fluctuations, consequently, may be of biological significance. For example, heterogeneity in clonal populations is believed to arise from molecular fluctuations in gene(More)
Comparable processes in different species often involve homologous genes. One question is whether the network structure, in particular the feedback control structure, is also conserved. The bacterial chemotaxis pathways in E. coli and B. subtilis both regulate the same task, namely, excitation and adaptation to environmental signals. Both pathways employ(More)
Noise has many roles in biological function, including generation of errors in DNA replication leading to mutation and evolution, noise-driven divergence of cell fates, noise-induced amplification of signals, and maintenance of the quantitative individuality of cells. Yet there is order to the behaviour and development of cells. They operate within strict(More)
Bacteria are able to sense chemical gradients over a wide range of concentrations. However, calculations based on the known number of receptors do not predict such a range unless receptors interact with one another in a cooperative manner. A number of recent experiments support the notion that this remarkable sensitivity in chemotaxis is mediated by(More)
Directed cell migration in response to chemical cues, also known as chemotaxis, is an important physiological process involved in wound healing, foraging, and the immune response. Cell migration requires the simultaneous formation of actin polymers at the leading edge and actomyosin complexes at the sides and back of the cell. An unresolved question in(More)
Theorists have long speculated on the mechanisms driving directed and spontaneous cell polarization. Recently, experimentalists have uncovered many of the mechanisms underlying polarization, enabling these models to be directly tested. In the process, they have demonstrated the explanatory and predictive value of these models and, at the same time,(More)
Lipids are naturally derived products that offer an attractive, renewable alternative to petroleum-based hydrocarbons. While naturally produced long-chain fatty acids can replace some petroleum analogs, medium-chain fatty acid would more closely match the desired physical and chemical properties of currently employed petroleum products. In this study, we(More)