Christopher V. Plowe

Learn More
BACKGROUND Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in Southeast Asia and now poses a threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Mapping the geographic extent of resistance is essential for planning containment and elimination strategies. METHODS Between May 2011 and April 2013, we enrolled 1241 adults and children with acute,(More)
Molecular assays for monitoring sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum have not been implemented because of the genetic and statistical complexity of the parasite mutations that confer resistance and their relation to treatment outcomes. This study analyzed pretreatment dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS)(More)
In 1993, Malawi became the first African country to replace chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine nationwide in response to high rates of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. To determine whether withdrawal of chloroquine can lead to the reemergence of chloroquine sensitivity, the prevalence of the pfcrt 76T molecular marker for(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia threatens malaria treatment efficacy. Mutations in a kelch protein encoded on P. falciparum chromosome 13 (K13) have been associated with resistance in vitro and in field samples from Cambodia. METHODS P. falciparum infections from artesunate efficacy trials in(More)
BACKGROUND In 1993, Malawi became the first country in Africa to replace chloroquine with the combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine for the treatment of malaria. At that time, the clinical efficacy of chloroquine was less than 50%. The molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria subsequently declined in prevalence and was(More)
We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 P. falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that identifies an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicenter of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographic area, we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations(More)
Our goal is to develop a vaccine that sustainably prevents Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria in ≥80% of recipients. Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ) administered by mosquito bites are the only immunogens shown to induce such protection in humans. Such protection is thought to be mediated by CD8(+) T cells in the liver that secrete interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We report(More)
Antifolate antimalarial drugs interfere with folate metabolism, a pathway essential to malaria parasite survival. This class of drugs includes effective causal prophylactic and therapeutic agents, some of which act synergistically when used in combination. Unfortunately, the antifolates have proven susceptible to resistance in the malaria parasite.(More)
As chloroquine resistance spreads across Africa, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors pyrimethamine and proguanil are being used as alternative first-line drugs for the treatment and prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance to these drugs is conferred by point mutations in parasite DHFR. These point mutations can be detected by(More)
We report a genome-wide association (GWA) study of severe malaria in The Gambia. The initial GWA scan included 2,500 children genotyped on the Affymetrix 500K GeneChip, and a replication study included 3,400 children. We used this to examine the performance of GWA methods in Africa. We found considerable population stratification, and also that signals of(More)