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Single-event upsets from particle strikes have become akey challenge in microprocessor design. Techniques todeal with these transient faults exist, but come at a cost.Designers clearly require accurate estimates of processorerror rates to make appropriate cost/reliability trade-offs.This paper describes a method for generating theseestimates.A key aspect of(More)
Transient faults due to neutron and alpha particle strikes posea significant obstacle to increasing processor transistor counts infuture technologies. Although fault rates of individual transistorsmay not rise significantly, incorporating more transistors into adevice makes that device more likely to encounter a fault. Hence,maintaining processor error(More)
<i>The growth of the Internet as a vehicle for secure communication and electronic commerce has brought cryptographic processing performance to the forefront of high throughput system design. This trend will be further underscored with the widespread adoption of secure protocols such as secure IP (IPSEC) and virtual private networks (VPNs).</i> <i>In this(More)
We present an FPGA-synthesizable version of the Intel Atom processor core, synthesized to a Virtex-5 based FPGA emulation system. To make the production Atom design in SystemVerilog synthesizable through industry standard EDA tool flow, we transformed and mapped latches in the design, converted clock gating, and replaced nonsynthesizable constructs with(More)
We introduce a new verification methodology for modern micro-processors that uses a simple checker processor to validate the exe-cution of a companion high-performance processor. The checker can be viewed as an at-speed emulator that is formally verified to be compliant to an ISA specification. This verification approach en-ables the practical deployment of(More)