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BACKGROUND All polyketide synthases, fatty acid synthases, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases require posttranslational modification of their constituent acyl carrier protein domain(s) to become catalytically active. The inactive apoproteins are converted to their active holo-forms by posttranslational transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl (P-pant)(More)
The molecular structure of the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase of the ddlB gene of Escherichia coli, co-crystallized with an S,R-methylphosphinate and adenosine triphosphate, was determined by x-ray diffraction to a resolution of 2.3 angstroms. A catalytic mechanism for the ligation of two D-alanine substrates is proposed in which a helix dipole and a(More)
The regulatory logic of siderophore biosynthetic genes in bacteria involves the universal repressor Fur, which acts together with iron as a negative regulator. However in other bacteria, in addition to the Fur-mediated mechanism of regulation, there is a concurrent positive regulation of iron transport and siderophore biosynthetic genes that occurs under(More)
The Bacillus subtilis enzyme Sfp, required for production of the lipoheptapeptide antibiotic surfactin, posttranslationally phosphopantetheinylates a serine residue in each of the seven peptidyl carrier protein domains of the first three subunits (SrfABC) of surfactin synthetase to yield docking sites for amino acid loading and peptide bond formation. With(More)
BACKGROUND Virulence in the pathogenic bacterium Yersinia pestis, causative agent of bubonic plague, has been correlated with the biosynthesis and transport of an iron-chelating siderophore, yersiniabactin, which is induced under iron-starvation conditions. Initial DNA sequencing suggested that this system is highly conserved among the pathogenic Yersinia.(More)
Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are two large families of complex natural products that are built from simple carboxylic acid or amino acid monomers, respectively, and that have important medicinal or agrochemical properties. Despite the substantial differences between these two classes of natural products, each is synthesized biologically under the(More)
Cyclophilins are a family of proteins that bind the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, possess peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, and assist in the folding of proteins. Human cyclophilins A and B are host cell proteins that bind specifically to the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein p55gag in vitro. Here we report that viral particles formed by p55gag, in(More)
Heat shock proteins of the 82-90 kDa class (hsp82 and hsp90) are abundant, conserved, and ubiquitous from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although proposed to be chaperones, they had not been reported to possess enzymatic activity until our recent observation that pure trypanosomatid hsp83 had potent ATPase activity (Nadeau, K., Sullivan, M., Engman, D., and(More)
BACKGROUND Many pathogenic bacteria secrete iron-chelating siderophores as virulence factors in the iron-limiting environments of their vertebrate hosts to compete for ferric iron. Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycobactins are mixed polyketide/nonribosomal peptides that contain a hydroxyaryloxazoline cap and two N-hydroxyamides that together create a(More)