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We classify transcondylar fractures of the distal humerus into four groups: undisplaced; simple displaced; T-type; and fracture dislocations (Posada's fracture). Our treatment of these fractures is based upon this classification. Undisplaced fractures are treated with immobilization. Displaced fractures are reduced and stabilized with internal fixation.(More)
The structure of human fibroblasts have been characterised in vitro by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the imaging or in the force versus distance (F-d) modes. The choice of cell substrate is important to ensure good adhesion. Of greater significance in the context of AFM analysis, is the observation that the substrate affects the imaging(More)
We present a comparison of three different methods to calibrate the spring constant of two different types of silicon beam shaped atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers to determine each method's accuracy, ease of use and potential destructiveness. The majority of research in calibrating AFM cantilevers has been concerned with contact mode levers. The(More)
Loading of the replicative ring helicase onto the origin of replication (oriC) is the final outcome of a well coordinated series of events that collectively constitute a primosomal cascade. Once the ring helicase is loaded, it recruits the primase and signals the switch to the polymerization mode. The transient nature of the helicase-primase (DnaB-DnaG)(More)
Along with traditional attributes such as the size, shape, and chemical structure of polymeric micro-objects, control over material distribution, or selective compartmentalization, appears to be increasingly important for maximizing the functionality and efficacy of biomaterials. The fabrication of tri- and tetracompartmental colloids made from(More)
Nanoscale surface films are known to develop on surfaces exposed to natural waters and have potential impacts on many environmental processes. A new method using atomic force microscopy is presented which physically removes the developed film in a defined area and then quantifies the difference in height between the film and the area where the film has been(More)
The phenomenon of protein aggregation is of considerable interest to various disciplines, including the field of medicine. A range of disease pathologies are associated with this phenomenon. One of the ocular diseases hallmarked by protein aggregation is the Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) Syndrome. This condition is characterized by the deposition of insoluble(More)
We apply topography and recognition (TREC) imaging to the analysis of whole, untreated human tissue for what we believe to be the first time. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), a well-known cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is characterized by abnormal protein aggregation on the anterior lens capsule of the eye. However, the development of effective(More)
Considerable attention has been given to the calibration of AFM cantilever spring constants in the last 20 years. Techniques that do not require tip-sample contact are considered advantageous since the imaging tip is not at risk of being damaged. Far less attention has been directed toward measuring the cantilever deflection or sensitivity, despite the fact(More)