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The structure of human fibroblasts have been characterised in vitro by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the imaging or in the force versus distance (F-d) modes. The choice of cell substrate is important to ensure good adhesion. Of greater significance in the context of AFM analysis, is the observation that the substrate affects the imaging(More)
Along with traditional attributes such as the size, shape, and chemical structure of polymeric micro-objects, control over material distribution, or selective compartmentalization, appears to be increasingly important for maximizing the functionality and efficacy of biomaterials. The fabrication of tri- and tetracompartmental colloids made from(More)
Loading of the replicative ring helicase onto the origin of replication (oriC) is the final outcome of a well coordinated series of events that collectively constitute a primosomal cascade. Once the ring helicase is loaded, it recruits the primase and signals the switch to the polymerization mode. The transient nature of the helicase-primase (DnaB-DnaG)(More)
We present a comparison of three different methods to calibrate the spring constant of two different types of silicon beam shaped atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers to determine each method's accuracy, ease of use and potential destructiveness. The majority of research in calibrating AFM cantilevers has been concerned with contact mode levers. The(More)
A light-scattering layer fabricated from electrospun titanium dioxide nanofibers (TiO2 -NFs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) formed a fiber-based photoanode. The nanocomposite scattering layer had a lawn-like structure and integration of carbon nanotubes into the NF photoanodes increased the power conversion efficiency from 2.9 % to 4.8 % under(More)
Static methods to determine the spring constant of AFM cantilevers have been widely used in the scientific community since the importance of such calibration techniques was established nearly 20 years ago. The most commonly used static techniques involve loading a trial cantilever with a known force by pressing it against a pre-calibrated standard or(More)
In this paper we present two simple, reliable and readily applicable methods for calibrating cantilevers and measuring the thickness of thin gold films. The spring constant calibration requires knowledge of the Young's modulus, density of the cantilever and resonant frequency. The thickness of thin gold layers was determined by measuring changes in the(More)
The phase behavior and lateral organization of saturated phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force-volume (FV) imaging for both pure and two component mixed layers. The results demonstrated the existence of unexpected segregated domains in pure PE membranes at(More)
A calibration method is presented for determining the spring constant of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers, which is a modification of the established Cleveland added mass technique. A focused ion beam (FIB) is used to remove a well-defined volume from a cantilever with known density, substantially reducing the uncertainty usually present in the(More)
In atomic force microscopy (AFM) the accuracy of data is often limited by the tip geometry and the effect on this geometry of wear. One way to improve the tip geometry is to attach carbon nanotubes (CNT) to AFM tips. CNTs are ideal because they have a small diameter (typically between 1 and 20nm), high aspect ratio, high strength, good conductivity, and(More)