Christopher Shields

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Successful axon regeneration in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is at least partially compromised due to the inhibitors associated with myelin and glial scar. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying these inhibitory activities are largely unknown. Here we provide biochemical and functional evidence that conventional isoforms of(More)
Axon regeneration in the central nervous system normally fails, in part because of a developmental decline in the intrinsic ability of CNS projection neurons to extend axons. Members of the KLF family of transcription factors regulate regenerative potential in developing CNS neurons. Expression of one family member, KLF7, is down-regulated developmentally,(More)
STUDY DESIGN A retrospective review of patients who underwent an anterior cervical fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with an absorbable collagen sponge (INFUSE; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Minneapolis, MN). OBJECTIVE To ascertain the complication rate after the use of high-dose INFUSE in anterior cervical fusions. SUMMARY(More)
Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective(More)
The majority of human spinal cord injuries involve gray matter loss from the cervical or lumbar enlargements. However, the deficits that arise from gray matter damage are largely masked by the severe deficits due to associated white matter damage. We have developed a model to examine gray matter-specific deficits and therapeutic strategies that uses(More)
OBJECTIVE Repair of demyelinated axons in diseases such as multiple sclerosis requires activation of the myelination program in existing or newly recruited oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The control of OPC differentiation and initiation of myelination during repair is poorly understood. In this study, we test the ability of anti-LINGO-1 reagents to(More)
The location of stem cells within the adult CNS makes them impractical for surgical removal and autologous transplantation. Their limited availability and histocompatibility issues further restrict their use. In contrast, olfactory neuroepithelium (ONe) located in the nasal passageways has a continuous regenerative capability and can be biopsied readily. To(More)
The present study investigated neuroprotective effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a distant member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, following moderate contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult rats. A T11 spinal cord contusion injury was made using an Infinite Horizon impactor (IH; impact force=150(More)
We evaluated computerized quantitative electroencephalography for the intraoperative detection of cerebral dysfunction. The quantitative electroencephalogram was recorded continuously during 96 myocardial revascularizations involving hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using Cerebrovascular Intraoperative MONitor (CIMON) software. CIMON relies on an adaptive(More)
STUDY DESIGN A 6 year retrospective study was conducted. OBJECTIVES The populations at risk for spinal cord injury (SCI) in the northwestern Kentucky (KY) and southern Indiana (IN) regions were identified following examination of the causes and factors associated with SCI. SETTING The database included patients primarily from the surrounding KY and IN(More)