Christopher S Ward

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Regulation of transcription initiation is generally attributable to activator/repressor proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences. However, regulators can also achieve specificity by binding directly to RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exploiting the kinetic variation intrinsic to different RNAP-promoter complexes. We report here a previously unknown(More)
Numerous mechanism-based anticancer drugs that target the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway are in clinical trials. However, it remains challenging to assess responses by traditional imaging methods. Here, we show for the first time the efficacy of hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in detecting the effect of PI3K(More)
RATIONALE Ceramide accumulates in the airway epithelium of mice deficient in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, resulting in susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and inflammation. OBJECTIVES To investigate quantitatively ceramide levels in the lower airway of people with cystic fibrosis compared with pulmonary hypertension,(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is characterized by specific motor, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. Because several of these abnormalities occur in other disease states associated with alterations in aminergic neurotransmitters, we investigated the contribution of such alterations to RTT pathogenesis. We found that both individuals with RTT and Mecp2-null mice have(More)
Breathing disturbances are a major challenge in Rett Syndrome (RTT). These disturbances are more pronounced during wakefulness; but irregular breathing occurs also during sleep. During the day patients can exhibit alternating bouts of hypoventilation and irregular hyperventilation. But there is significant individual variability in severity, onset, duration(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Typical RTT primarily affects girls and is characterized by a brief period of apparently normal development followed by the loss of purposeful hand skills and language, the onset of anxiety,(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in Ataxin-1 (ATXN1). Both WT and mutant ATXN1 interact with 14-3-3 proteins, and 14-3-3 overexpression stabilizes ATXN1 levels in cells and increases ATXN1 toxicity in flies. To determine whether reducing 14-3-3 levels(More)
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway is activated in more than88% of glioblastomas (GBM). New drugs targeting this pathway are currently in clinical trials. However, noninvasive assessment of treatment response remains challenging. By using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), PI3K/Akt/mTOR(More)
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable phosphocholine (PC) is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked postnatal disorder, results from mutations in Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Survival and breathing in Mecp2(NULL/Y) animals are improved by an N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. We determined that Mecp2(NULL/Y) animals also have a metabolic syndrome and investigated whether IGF-I(More)