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We consider some of the problems involved in current discussions on stem cells in adult mammalian tissues. The present concepts involve a number of pitfalls, weaknesses and logical, semantic and classification problems. This indicates the necessity for new and well-defined concepts that are amenable to experimental analysis. One of the major difficulties in(More)
Breast epithelial stem cells are thought to be the primary targets in the etiology of breast cancer. Since breast cancers mostly express estrogen and progesterone receptor (ERalpha and PR), we examined the biology of these ERalpha/PR-positive cells and their relationship to stem cells in normal human breast epithelium. We employed several complementary(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the proliferative activity within the epithelial cells of the normal human breast in 122 patients (6 reduction mammoplasties and 116 fibroadenoma excisions) in relation to age and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Thirty three of the patients were on oral contraceptives and 33 were parous. Thin tissue slices were(More)
We present a novel class of spatial models of cell movement and arrangement applied to the two-dimensional cellular organization of the intestinal crypt. The model differs from earlier approaches in using a dynamic movement on a lattice-free cylindrical surface. Cell movement is a consequence of mitotic activity. Cells interact by viscoelastic forces.(More)
We have shown previously that estradiol stimulates cell proliferation and progesterone receptor (PgR) synthesis in luminal epithelial cells of the normal human breast. Approximately 10-15% of luminal epithelial cells within the normal breast express immunodetectable estrogen receptor (ER), but little is known about their distribution within lobules and(More)
The stem cells in the crypts of the small intestinal mucosa divide about a thousand times during the lifespan of a laboratory mouse, and yet they show little evidence of any decline in proliferative potential and rarely develop carcinogenic mutations, suggesting that their genome is extremely well protected. Protection against DNA-replication-induced errors(More)
All epithelial cells in the small and large intestine are thought to originate from stem cells located towards the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn. To-date, there are no specific intestinal stem cell markers, hence stem cell properties can only be inferred. A range of experimental techniques have been employed including cell position mapping, radiation(More)
The relationship between acute (<36 h) induction of apoptosis and longer-term (>72 h) intestinal histopathology was systematically investigated in vivo using p53 wild-type (+/+) and null (-/-) mice. Administration of the enterotoxin 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at either 40 or 400 mg/kg to BDF1 mice induced an acute p53-dependent apoptosis in the crypts of both(More)
The effect of ingestion of oral contraceptives (OCP) on cell proliferation and oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression of the epithelial cells of the normal human breast was compared with findings in controls not taking OCPs. Histologically normal breast tissue was removed during operation for fibroadenoma or reduction mammoplasty in 216(More)