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Pollen tube cells elongate based on actin- dependent targeted secretion at the tip. Rho family small GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of related processes in animal and yeast cells. We have functionally characterized Rac type Rho family proteins that are expressed in growing pollen tubes. Expression of dominant negative Rac inhibited pollen(More)
We estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find large and immediate increases in drinking at age 21, including a 21 percent increase in recent drinking days. We also find a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21, primarily due to motor vehicle(More)
Much recent research on sexual minorities has used couples-based samples, which--by construction--provide no information on nonpartnered individuals. We present the first systematic empirical analysis of partnership and cohabitation among self-identified gay men and lesbians using two independent, large, population-wwbased data sources from California.(More)
Several studies have examined the effects of state cigarette tax increases on youth substance use over the 1990s, with most--but not all--finding that higher taxes reduce youth consumption of tobacco. We advance the literature by using data from the 1991 to 2005 waves of the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), providing information on over 100,000(More)
The Amethyst Initiative, signed by more than 100 college presidents and other higher education officials calls for a reexamination of the minimum legal drinking age in the United States. A central argument of the initiative is that the U.S. minimum legal drinking age policy results in more dangerous drinking than would occur if the legal drinking age were(More)
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to(More)
We provide the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of mandatory seatbelt laws on self-reported seatbelt use, highway fatalities, and crash-related injuries among high school age youths using data from the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) national, state, and local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System(More)
Public-place smoking restrictions are the most important non-price tobacco control measures worldwide, yet surprisingly little is known about their effects on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We study these laws in Canada using data with questions about respondents' ETS exposure in public and private places. In fixed-effects models we find(More)
We use the exogenous variation in alcohol consumption induced by the Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) and data from California to determine how much an increase in drinking increases criminal behavior. We find that individuals just over age 21 are 32 percent more likely to report having consumed alcohol in the previous month and drink on 70 percent more(More)
A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers(More)