Christopher S. Ambrose

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Two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses have circulated globally since 1985. However, licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain antigens from only a single influenza B virus and thus provide limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the vaccine. In recent years, predictions about(More)
BACKGROUND The safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a monovalent intranasal 2009 A/H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) were evaluated in children and adults. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were completed in children (2-17 y) and adults (18-49 y). Subjects were assigned 4:1 to receive 2(More)
Nine randomized clinical trials, including approximately 25,000 children aged 6-71 months and 2000 children aged 6-17 years, have evaluated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against culture-confirmed influenza as compared to placebo or trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV). We conducted meta-analyses, based on Mantel-Haenszel relative(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health(More)
BACKGROUND Nine randomized controlled clinical trials, including approximately 26,000 children aged 6 months to 17 years, have evaluated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with placebo or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The objective of the current analysis was to(More)
Seasonal influenza vaccines, including live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), contain three vaccine strains (two type A and one type B). Ideally, the hemagglutinin antigens of the recommended vaccine strains are antigenically similar to epidemic wild-type strains; in actuality, the antigenic match between circulating and vaccine strains each year can(More)
A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is currently approved in the United States for the prevention of influenza in individuals 2-49 years of age. This article summarizes the available data describing the safety and efficacy of LAIV for the prevention of influenza in both children and adults. LAIV is administered as an intranasal spray and has been(More)
In the United States, two types of vaccines are recommended for the prevention of influenza: an intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for eligible individuals aged 2-49 years and unadjuvanted injectable trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) for eligible individuals aged ≥ 6 months. Several recent studies have compared the efficacy of the 2(More)
In the United States, all children 6 months through 18 years of age are recommended to be vaccinated against influenza annually. However, the existing pediatric immunization infrastructure does not have the capacity to vaccinate a high proportion of children each year. School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs provide an opportunity to immunize(More)
In the European Union and Canada, an Ann Arbor strain live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is approved for use in children aged 2–17 years, including those with mild to moderate asthma or prior wheezing. The safety and efficacy of LAIV versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in children with asthma aged 6–17 years have been demonstrated.(More)