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BACKGROUND The safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a monovalent intranasal 2009 A/H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) were evaluated in children and adults. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were completed in children (2-17 y) and adults (18-49 y). Subjects were assigned 4:1 to receive 2(More)
Seasonal influenza vaccines, including live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), contain three vaccine strains (two type A and one type B). Ideally, the hemagglutinin antigens of the recommended vaccine strains are antigenically similar to epidemic wild-type strains; in actuality, the antigenic match between circulating and vaccine strains each year can(More)
A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is currently approved in the United States for the prevention of influenza in individuals 2-49 years of age. This article summarizes the available data describing the safety and efficacy of LAIV for the prevention of influenza in both children and adults. LAIV is administered as an intranasal spray and has been(More)
The protective mechanisms of influenza vaccines in young children are not completely understood. A phase 2 clinical study was conducted in 85 children 12-35 months of age to describe and compare the immune responses to live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). To better understand the biology of vaccine(More)
Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers a novel approach to influenza vaccination and is approved for healthy individuals 5 to 49 years of age. In placebo-controlled studies in children, LAIV was 73 to 93 percent efficacious, and protection lasted more than 12 months. In head-to-head studies in children, LAIV demonstrated a 35 to 53 percent(More)
BACKGROUND Nine randomized controlled clinical trials, including approximately 26,000 children aged 6 months to 17 years, have evaluated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with placebo or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The objective of the current analysis was to(More)
Two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses have circulated globally since 1985. However, licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain antigens from only a single influenza B virus and thus provide limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the vaccine. In recent years, predictions about(More)
Nine randomized clinical trials, including approximately 25,000 children aged 6-71 months and 2000 children aged 6-17 years, have evaluated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against culture-confirmed influenza as compared to placebo or trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV). We conducted meta-analyses, based on Mantel-Haenszel relative(More)
In the United States, two types of vaccines are recommended for the prevention of influenza: an intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for eligible individuals aged 2-49 years and unadjuvanted injectable trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) for eligible individuals aged ≥ 6 months. Several recent studies have compared the efficacy of the 2(More)
BACKGROUND Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the predominant antibody produced in response to mucosal infections. The role of IgA in providing protection against influenza in children vaccinated with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has not been well described. METHODS Nasal IgA responses were assessed using data from 3 prospective, 2-year, randomized(More)