Christopher Ryan Shaler

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Influenza viral infection is well-known to predispose to subsequent bacterial superinfection in the lung but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined. We have established a murine model of heterologous infections by an H1N1 influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus. We found that indeed prior influenza infection markedly increased the susceptibility of(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) represents a leading global health concern, with 8.7 million newly emerging cases, and 1.4 million reported deaths annually. Despite an estimated one third of the world's population being infected, relatively few infected individuals ever develop active clinical disease. The ability of the(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative bacterium of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), is a serious global health concern. Central to M.tb effective immune avoidance is its ability to modulate the early innate inflammatory response and prevent the establishment of adaptive T-cell immunity for nearly three weeks. When compared with other intracellular(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the leading cause of death due to a bacterial pathogen. Emerging epidemiologic evidence suggests that the leading risk factor associated with TB mortality is cigarette smoke exposure. Despite this, it remains poorly understood what is the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on anti-TB(More)
In vitro manipulated dendritic cells (DC) have increasingly been used as a promising vaccine formulation against cancer and infectious disease. However, improved understanding of the immune mechanisms is needed for the development of safe and efficacious mucosal DC immunization. We have developed a murine model of respiratory mucosal immunization by using a(More)
Immunopathology is a major cause of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role and regulatory mechanisms of CD4 T cells in severe lung immunopathology following acute influenza infection are poorly understood. In this paper, we report that the emergence of immunopathogenic CD4 T cells is under the control of a transmembrane(More)
Clinical and experimental studies have shown that estradiol (E2) confers protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism. Better protection in E2-treated mice, immunized against genital HSV-2, coincided with earlier recruitment and higher proportions of Th1 and Th17 effector cells in the(More)
Dysregulated immune responses to infection, such as those encountered in sepsis, can be catastrophic. Sepsis is typically triggered by an overwhelming systemic response to an infectious agent(s) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality even under optimal critical care. Recent studies have implicated unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS A short-interval, two-stage approach termed associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) increases the number of patients with extensive malignant disease of the liver and a small future liver remnant (FLR) that can undergo liver resection. While this approach results in accelerated liver(More)
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