Learn More
Hip scans of U.S. adults aged 20-99 years acquired in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. The program analyzes narrow (3 mm wide) regions at specific locations across the proximal femur to measure bone mineral density (BMD) as(More)
Many dramatic changes in morphology within the genus Homo have occurred over the past 2 million years or more, including large increases in absolute brain size and decreases in postcanine dental size and skeletal robusticity. Body mass, as the 'size' variable against which other morphological features are usually judged, has been important for assessing(More)
An interactive computer program was developed to derive femoral neck geometry from raw bone mineral image data for an estimate of hip strength using single plane engineering stress analysis. The program, which we call Hip Strength Analysis (HSA), was developed as an attempt to improve the predictive value of hip bone mineral data for osteoporosis fracture(More)
"Wolff's law" is a concept that has sometimes been misrepresented, and frequently misunderstood, in the anthropological literature. Although it was originally formulated in a strict mathematical sense that has since been discredited, the more general concept of "bone functional adaptation" to mechanical loading (a designation that should probably replace(More)
The analysis of humeral asymmetry in Recent human skeletal samples and an extant tennis-player sample documents minimal asymmetry in bone length, little asymmetry in distal humeral articular breadth, but pronounced and variable asymmetry in mid- and distal diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric parameters. More specifically, skeletal samples of normal modern(More)
Increases with aging in subperiosteal dimensions and second moments of area (measures of bending and torsional rigidity) in femoral and tibial cross sections are documented in an archeological sample from the American Southwest. Significant differences between cross-sectional sites and between sexes in the pattern of cortical remodeling with age are also(More)
Temporal trends in postcranial robusticity within the genus Homo are explored by comparing cross-sectional diaphyseal and articular properties of the femur, and to a more limited extent, the humerus, in samples of Recent and earlier Homo. Using both theoretical mechanical models and empirical observations within Recent humans, scaling relationships between(More)
Changes with age in cross-sectional geometry of the lower limb bones were investigated in a large sample of cadaveric skeletal material from U.S. white adults. Section properties (areas and second moments of area) were determined at 11 locations by sectioning and direct measurement of 103 femora and 99 tibiae. All properties were standardized for body size(More)
A total of 626 U.S. male Marine Corps recruits underwent anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the femoral midshaft and the distal third of the tibia prior to a 12 week physical training program. Conventionally obtained frontal plane DXA scan data were used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as to(More)
Body mass estimation equations are generated from long bone cross-sectional diaphyseal and articular surface dimensions in 176 individuals and 12 species of hominoids and cercopithecoids. A series of comparisons is carried out to determine the best body mass predictors for each of several taxonomic/locomotor groupings. Articular breadths are better(More)