Christopher Ruff

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Many dramatic changes in morphology within the genus Homo have occurred over the past 2 million years or more, including large increases in absolute brain size and decreases in postcanine dental size and skeletal robusticity. Body mass, as the 'size' variable against which other morphological features are usually judged, has been important for assessing(More)
Hip scans of U.S. adults aged 20-99 years acquired in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. The program analyzes narrow (3 mm wide) regions at specific locations across the proximal femur to measure bone mineral density (BMD) as(More)
An interactive computer program was developed to derive femoral neck geometry from raw bone mineral image data for an estimate of hip strength using single plane engineering stress analysis. The program, which we call Hip Strength Analysis (HSA), was developed as an attempt to improve the predictive value of hip bone mineral data for osteoporosis fracture(More)
The influence of developmental factors on long-bone cross-sectional geometry and articular size in modern humans is investigated using two approaches: (1) an analysis of the effects of increased mechanical loading on long-bone structure when applied during different developmental periods, using data collected for a study of upper limb bone bilateral(More)
The analysis of humeral asymmetry in Recent human skeletal samples and an extant tennis-player sample documents minimal asymmetry in bone length, little asymmetry in distal humeral articular breadth, but pronounced and variable asymmetry in mid- and distal diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric parameters. More specifically, skeletal samples of normal modern(More)
Discovery of the first complete Early Pleistocene hominin pelvis, Gona BSN49/P27, attributed to Homo erectus, raises a number of issues regarding early hominin body size and shape variation. Here, acetabular breadth, femoral head breadth, and body mass calculated from femoral head breadth are compared in 37 early hominin (6.0-0.26 Ma) specimens, including(More)
Variation in long bone cross-sectional geometry can be given a more precise functional interpretation using engineering beam theory. However, difficulties in measurement technique have generally prevented studies of large samples of cross sections in this way. In the present study, an automated system utilizing an electronic digitizer and computer software(More)
Hypertension is a leading cause of stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. The genetic basis of blood pressure variation is largely unknown but is likely to involve genes that influence renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone. Here we argue that susceptibility to hypertension is ancestral and that differential susceptibility to hypertension is due(More)
To identify behaviorally significant differences in bone structure it is first necessary to control for the effects of body size and body shape. Here the scaling of cross-sectional geometric properties of long bone diaphyses with different "size" measures (bone length, body mass, and the product of bone length and body mass) are compared in two modern human(More)
Body mass estimation equations are generated from long bone cross-sectional diaphyseal and articular surface dimensions in 176 individuals and 12 species of hominoids and cercopithecoids. A series of comparisons is carried out to determine the best body mass predictors for each of several taxonomic/locomotor groupings. Articular breadths are better(More)