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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be important in the destruction of cartilage seen in equine osteoarthritis and may be detectable in synovial fluid. Synovial fluids were obtained from normal equine joints and from joints of horses with aseptic and septic joint diseases. The total MMP gelatinase enzyme activities were measured by gelatin zymography and(More)
We describe and validate a simple method for the study of the proportion of collagen fibers (and apatite crystals) in a bone slice parallel with the plane of section. Viewed between crossed circular polarizers, all bone areas with collagen lying more nearly in the plane of section (i.e., transverse [TS] collagen) appear bright whatever its direction in this(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY Considerable variation in the rates of equine fatality at different racecourses draws attention to probable risk factors at the level of course or race that might be partly responsible. Distal limb fractures are the most common cause of equine fatality on UK racecourses and identification of risk factors for such injuries and(More)
The analysis of data in clinical records could be useful to epidemiologists in planning analytical studies and identifying new research initiatives. This paper describes the method used to develop a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words of text into fewer content categories on the basis of explicit rules of user-defined coding, and(More)
A portable system using a direct contact for the measurement of ultrasonic velocity and broadband attenuation in bone is described (contact ultrasonic bone analyser, CUBA). Soft-tissue compensation is performed using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. CUBA has been successfully validated using reference materials, the precision of velocity and broadband(More)
Bone exhibits positive form birefringence dominated by and dependent upon the orientation of its collagen. The biomechanical efficacy of bone as a tissue is largely determined by collagen fibers of preferred orientation and distribution (and corresponding orientation of mineral crystallites), and evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that this efficacy(More)
The objective of this study was to identify risk factors, during racing, associated with imminent fatal distal limb fracture in Thoroughbreds. One hundred and nine cases of fatal distal limb fracture were identified from all 59 UK racecourses over a 2-year period (February 1999-January 2001). Three uninjured control horses were randomly selected from the(More)
This study examined material from Thoroughbred horses, the majority of which had been in race training, for evidence of pathology in the third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones which might be related to the occurrence of distal condylar fractures. Whole bone samples were studied and documented by macrophotography prior to(More)
Collagen orientation maps were determined for the long bones of the upper forelimb (humerus, ulna, radius) using previously described techniques. All three bones had characteristic, non-random patterns of collagen fibre orientation. In the humerus, transverse collagen predominated in the medial and posterior cortices proximally and in the anterior and(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY Fractures below the level of the radius or tibia (distal limb fractures) are the most common cause of equine fatality on UK racecourses; however, little is known about their epidemiology or aetiology. Identification of risk factors could enable intervention strategies to be designed to reduce the number of fatalities. (More)