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Techniques currently available for determining cell division are able to show one or, at best, a limited number of cell divisions. Other methods exist which can quantify overall division, but tell nothing about the division history of individual cells. Here we present a new technique in which an intracellular fluorescent label is divided equally between(More)
Fluorescent dyes are increasingly being exploited to track lymphocyte migration and proliferation. The present paper reviews the properties and performance of some 14 different fluorescent dyes that have been used during the last 20 years to monitor lymphocyte migration. Of the 14 dyes discussed, two stand out as being the most versatile in terms of(More)
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells provide selection signals to germinal center B cells, which is essential for long-lived antibody responses. High CXCR5 and low CCR7 expression facilitates their homing to B cell follicles and distinguishes them from T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells. Here, we showed that Bcl-6 directs Tfh cell differentiation:(More)
This protocol outlines the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) method for following the proliferation of human lymphocytes in vitro and mouse lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The method relies on the ability of CFSE to covalently label long-lived intracellular molecules with the highly fluorescent dye, carboxyfluorescein. Following(More)
The polysaccharide heparan sulphate is ubiquitously expressed as a proteoglycan in extracellular matrices and on cell surfaces. Heparan sulphate has marked sequence diversity that allows it to specifically interact with many proteins. This Review focuses on the multiple roles of heparan sulphate in inflammatory responses and, in particular, on its(More)
The endoglycosidase heparanase is an important in the degradation of the extracellular matrix by invading cells, notably metastatic tumor cells and migrating leukocytes. Here we report the cDNA sequence of the human platelet enzyme, which encodes a unique protein of 543 amino acids, and the identification of highly homologous sequences in activated mouse T(More)
The glycolytic phenotype is a widespread phenomenon in solid cancer forms, including breast cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA) has recently been proposed as a novel and relatively non-toxic anti-cancer agent that can reverse the glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells through the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. We have examined the effect of DCA(More)
The role of the immune system in the surveillance of transformed cells has seen a resurgence of interest in the last 10 years, with a substantial body of data in mice and humans supporting a role for the immune system in host protection from tumor development and in shaping tumor immunogenicity. A number of earlier studies have demonstrated that(More)
Heparan sulphate (HS) is an important component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the vasculature basal lamina (BL) which functions as a barrier to the extravasation of metastatic and inflammatory cells. Platelet-tumour cell aggregation at the capillary endothelium results in activation and degranulation of platelets. Cleavage of HS by endoglycosidase(More)
Heparanase is a beta-D-endoglucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate (HS) and has been implicated in many important physiological and pathological processes, including tumor cell metastasis, angiogenesis, and leukocyte migration. We report herein the identification of active-site residues of human heparanase. Using PSI-BLAST and PHI-BLAST searches of(More)