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We propose that the antecedent of a donkey pronoun takes scope over and binds the donkey pronoun, just like any other quantificational antecedent would bind a pronoun. We flesh out this idea in a grammar that compositionally derives the truth conditions of donkey sentences containing conditionals and relative clauses, including those involving modals and(More)
Oxygen consumption of preimplantation and early postimplantation mouse embryos has been measured using a novel noninvasive ultramicrofluorescence technique, based on an oil-soluble, nontoxic quaternary benzoid compound pyrene, whose fluorescence is quenched in the presence of oxygen. Pyruvate and glucose consumption, lactate production, and glycogen(More)
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated after two different swimming tests in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch; 238 +/- 5 g) given 96-h exposures to 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 microg/L of chlorpyrifos. Brain AChE activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner (AChE activities were 81.8, 52.2, 37.3, and 21.3% of control for the 5, 10, 20,(More)
Prostaglandins (PGs) are ubiquitous lipid mediators derived from cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid that exert a broad range of physiologic activities, including modulation of inflammation, ovulation and arterial blood pressure. PGE2, a chief cyclooxygenase product, modulates blood pressure and fertility, although the specific G protein-coupled(More)
BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In an effort to find effective tools for control programs to reduce mosquito populations, the authors assessed the acute toxicities of 14 monoterpenoids, trans-anithole and the essential oil of rosemary against different larval stages of Ae. aegypti. The potential(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying renal complications of diabetes remain unclear. We tested whether renal NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 contributes to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and hyperactivation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic mice (db/db) (20 wk) and cultured mouse proximal tubule (MPT) cells exposed(More)
NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are a significant source of reactive oxygen species, which contribute to glomerular podocyte dysfunction. Although studies have implicated Nox1, -2, and -4 in several glomerulopathies, including diabetic nephropathy, little is known regarding the role of Nox5 in this context. We examined Nox5 expression and regulation in kidney(More)
Glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2) modulates the activity of several mitochondrial proteins in cardiac tissue by catalyzing deglutathionylation reactions. However, it remains uncertain whether Grx2 is required to control mitochondrial ATP output in heart. Here, we report that Grx2 plays a vital role modulating mitochondrial energetics and heart physiology by mediating(More)
A biologically based toxicokinetic model was developed to stimulate the metabolic disposition of pyrene in trout with an average body weight of 450 g and dosed with a single bolus injection of the chemical (10 mg/kg). The model consists of a membrane-limited muscle compartment and six flow-limited compartments including the gills, liver, gut, kidney,(More)