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Single cell experiments in primates show that there are two major parallel pathways named after the lamination in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Each of these systems can be preferentially excited by appropriate stimuli. Here we report that in man the polarity of the evoked potentials both in retina and in cortex depends on which of these pathways is(More)
PURPOSE To measure changes in the relative spectral sensitivities of the dark adapted and light adapted ERG and thus to establish the possible contribution of rods to the 'blue cone' ERG elicited by flashes of blue light. BACKGROUND Short wavelength stimuli in the light-adapted eye evoke small rounded b-waves which have been considered to be S-cone(More)
A TV monitor was used to evoke either a pattern ERG to a contrast-reversing checkerboard (PERG), or a focal ERG to alternate increases and decreases of luminance of the blank screen within a bright surround (FERG). Both responses are small (approx 2 microV) and fast (approx 50 msec to peak) and are similar in several other properties. However, they differ(More)
A gold foil ERG electrode is described. The device is inexpensive and simple to fabricate. Since it is hooked over the lower lid and makes minimal touch contact with the inferior limbal area, it can be used in circumstances which require prolonged testing of retinal function or in eyes with corneal pathology. Because the optics of the eye are not(More)
An electroretinographic (ERG) technique is described in which the relationship between scotopic b wave amplitude and stimulus light intensity is determined. The relative amplitude of scotopic to photopic responses is assessed by means of red light and flicker. The method is applied to the detection of ERG abnormalities in heterozygotes for X-linked(More)
Extended electroretinographic (ERG) testing has been carried out in a series of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, dominantly inherited. In 36 of 57 cases only cone b waves were evoked. In 20 of these, psychophysical tests showed only cones mediated vision (Massof class I), while in 16 statis scotopic perimetry demonstrated residual rod function (class(More)
Cone flicker threshold rises as the rods dark adapt, though the cone threshold to continuous light remains constant. The rise is normally about 1 log unit, but in certain patients who complain of night blindness it may be as great as 2.5 log units. In these persons the kinetics of the rod-cone interaction are those of the recovery of rod sensitivity. The(More)
Patients with bilateral drusen as a manifestation of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may have minor psychophysically detectable visual defects in the presence of normal visual acuity. In a variety of retinal diseases, one of the earliest changes in visual processing is an impairment of normal colour vision. This study was undertaken to evaluate(More)
PURPOSE To investigate two apparent anomalies of the human electroretinogram: the "on" and "off" components of the cone based PIII are unequally sized, and transitions from red to green, which are electroretinographically silent, yield reverse transitions (green to red) in which a-waves develop. METHODS Ganzfeld electroretinograms were obtained with(More)
A syndrome is described in which patients complain of inability to see at night, although their rod and cone thresholds are normal. In such persons the rods, when dark-adapted, elevate cone flicker thresholds by 2 log units or more, and this condition is the basis of their complaint. Patients are often thought to be hysterics or to have congenital(More)