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Defective viral genomes (DVGs) are generated during virus replication. DVGs bearing complementary ends are strong inducers of dendritic cell (DC) maturation and of the expression of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines by triggering signaling of the RIG-I family of intracellular pattern recognition receptors. Our data show that DCs stimulated with virus(More)
Immune evasion is a defining feature of the virus-host relationship. During infection, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) utilizes multiple proteins to manipulate the host immune response. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein blocks the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Previously, we found(More)
The 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) viruses have evolved to contain an E47K substitution in the HA2 subunit of the stalk region of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. The biological significance of this single amino acid change was investigated by comparing A/California/7/2009 (HA2-E47) with a later strain, A/Brisbane/10/2010 (HA2-K47). The E47K change was found(More)
Molecular pathways underlying the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) are poorly understood. Removal of the HSV virion host shut-off (vhs) protein relieves a block to DC activation observed during wild-type infection. In this study, we utilized a potent DC stimulatory HSV-1 recombinant virus lacking vhs as(More)
One prominent pattern of mutational frequency, long appreciated in comparative genomics, is the bias of purine/pyrimidine conserving substitutions (transitions) over purine/pyrimidine altering substitutions (transversions). Traditionally, this transitional bias has been thought to be driven by the underlying rates of DNA mutation and/or repair. However,(More)
In 2009, we successfully produced a high-yield live attenuated H1N1pdm A/California/7/2009 vaccine (CA/09 LAIV) by substitution of three residues (K119E, A186D, and D222G) in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Since then, we have generated and evaluated additional H1N1pdm vaccine candidates from viruses isolated in 2010 and 2011. The 2010 strains with the new(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is being developed as an oncolytic virus for virotherapy. In this study we analysed the regulation of complement-mediated inactivation of a recombinant NDV in different host cells. NDV grown in human cells was less sensitive to complement-mediated virus inactivation than NDV grown in embryonated chicken eggs. Additionally, NDV(More)
Collective cell movement is critical to the emergent properties of many multicellular systems, including microbial self-organization in biofilms, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. However, even the best-studied systems lack a complete picture of how diverse physical and chemical cues act upon individual cells to ensure coordinated(More)
Subversion of the host response to virus infection is a universal theme of virology and viral immunology. Multiple mechanisms are in place to limit virus spread on behalf of the host, yet through evolution, viruses have adapted to either weaken or eliminate the effects of these host factors. Cell death or apoptosis is one such example of a host response to(More)
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