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BACKGROUND We evaluated the frequency of recovery of pathogens from children with diarrhea who presented to a pediatric emergency department and characterized the associated illnesses, to develop guidelines for performing a bacterial enteric culture. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of all patients with diarrhea who presented to a large(More)
Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities(More)
BACKGROUND The frequency with which bacteria cause diarrhea evaluated in ambulatory settings is often unknown. We attempted to determine the microbiologic etiology of diarrhea in a private pediatric practice (site A) and a clinic serving largely immigrant children (site B) and to establish guidelines for bacterial culture. METHODS Children with diarrhea(More)
Little is known about patterns of tuberculosis (TB) transmission among populations in developing countries with high rates of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To examine patterns of TB transmission in such a setting, we performed a population-based DNA fingerprinting study among TB patients in Botswana. Between January 1997 and July(More)
BACKGROUND Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. METHODS A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of(More)
Beginning in the 1970s, the incidence of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) infection and the number of related outbreaks in the United States has increased dramatically. By 1994, SE was the most commonly reported Salmonella serotype, with an incidence of >10 laboratory-confirmed infections per 100,000 population in the Northeast. Intensive(More)
A prospective study of false-positive cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that resulted from laboratory cross-contamination was conducted at three laboratories in California. Laboratory cross-contamination accounted for 2% of the positive cultures. Cross-contamination should be a concern when an isolate matches the genotype of another sample processed(More)
CONTEXT Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused primarily by toxins of the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Although botulinum toxin A is available by prescription for cosmetic and therapeutic use, no cases of botulism with detectable serum toxin have previously been attributed to cosmetic or therapeutic botulinum(More)
BACKGROUND To better understand the sources of foodborne illness, we propose a scheme for categorizing foods implicated in investigations of outbreaks of foodborne diseases. Because nearly 2000 foods have been reported as causing outbreaks in the United States, foods must be grouped for meaningful analyses. METHODS We defined a hierarchy of 17 mutually(More)
OBJECTIVE Between November 1994 and April 1995, more than 3300 students in 49 schools in two counties in New York were potentially exposed to five school bus drivers with tuberculosis. This investigation was carried out to determine the extent of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among students. METHODS Components of the epidemiologic(More)