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This report summarizes the outcomes of an IndiSeas workshop aimed at using ecosystem indicators to evaluate the status of the world’s exploited marine ecosystems in support of an ecosystem approach to fisheries, and global policy drivers such as the 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Key issues covered relate to the selection and(More)
Over the past half century fishing has led globally to a reduction in the mean trophic level of commercially landed species, with a significant decline from large predatory fish toward plankton-eating pelagic species and low trophic-level invertebrates [1]. An implied endpoint of this 'fishing down marine food webs' is a proliferation of previously(More)
How have North Sea skate and shark assemblages changed since the early 20th century when bottom trawling became widespread, whilst their environment became increasingly impacted by fishing, climate change, habitat degradation and other anthropogenic pressures? This article examines long-term changes in the distribution and occurrence of the elasmobranch(More)
The realisation of efficient functionalisation strategies is critical to the further development of CNT science and technology. The area has attracted a great deal of attention and a host of innovative approaches developed. However, as the examples highlighted here illustrate, many challenges remain. 1 Introduction " Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) of(More)
Wide-ranging, indicator-based assessments of large, complex ecosystems are playing an increasing role in guiding environmental policy and management. An example is the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which requires Member States to take measures to reach "good environmental status" (GES) in European marine waters. However, formulation of indicator(More)
Climate change and resource exploitation have been shown to modify the importance of bottom-up and top-down forces in ecosystems. However, the resulting pattern of trophic control in complex food webs is an emergent property of the system and thus unintuitive. We develop a statistical nondeterministic model, capable of modeling complex patterns of trophic(More)
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