Christopher Pettengell

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HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another(More)
OBJECTIVE There is substantial epidemiological evidence that infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) enhances both HIV susceptibility and subsequent sexual transmission. Both infections are extremely common in female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa, and up to 80% of new HIV infections in urban men in the region are acquired via(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with increased HIV cervicovaginal shedding. We hypothesized that this might relate to BV-associated increases in mucosal activated CD4 T cells, which could enhance local HIV replication. METHODS Vaginal flora, cytokine/chemokine levels, and mucosal immune cell populations collected by cervical(More)
BACKGROUND In the United Kingdom, cardiothoracic surgeons have led the outcome reporting revolution seen over the last 20 years. The objective of this survey was to assess cardiothoracic surgeons' opinions on the topic, with the aim of guiding future debate and policy making for all subspecialties. METHODS AND RESULTS A questionnaire was developed using(More)
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