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The structure and function of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse and human serotonin 1a receptor gene have been analyzed by RNA 5' end mapping, DNA-protein interaction, and transient expression assays. A large number of mRNA 5' termini, detected by mapping 5' ends from mouse brain RNA, were found dispersed over a region of about 700 base pairs flanking the(More)
Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a number of physiological processes and pathological conditions. These effects are mediated by at least 14 different 5-HT receptors. We have inactivated the gene encoding the 5-HT1A receptor in mice and found that receptor-deficient animals have an increased tendency to avoid a novel and fearful environment and(More)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-causing lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) effectively evade host immunity and, once established, infections with these viruses are only rarely controlled by immunological mechanisms. However, the initial establishment of infection in the first few days after(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The published data on the relationship between dysphagia and both outcome and complications after acute stroke have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between these, using bedside assessment and videofluoroscopic examination. METHODS We prospectively studied 121 consecutive patients admitted with acute stroke. A(More)
The paramyxovirus template for transcription and genome replication consists of the RNA genome encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (N protein). The activity of the complex, consisting of viral polymerase plus template, can be measured with minireplicons in which the genomic coding sequence is replaced by chloramphenical acetyltransferase (CAT)(More)
Measles virus V protein is a Cys-rich polypeptide that is dispensable for virus propagation in continuous cell lines, but necessary for efficient viral replication in animals. Those functions modulating virus propagation in vivo are not understood completely, although V protein is known to interfere with the host interferon response and control of viral(More)
Recovery of recombinant, negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA viruses from a genomic cDNA clone requires a rescue system that promotes de novo assembly of a functional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex in the cell cytoplasm. This is accomplished typically by cotransfecting permissive cells with multiple plasmids that encode the positive-sense genomic RNA, the(More)
The 5' flanking region of the 5-HT2 receptor gene has been cloned, sequenced and its transcriptional regulatory functions analyzed. The promoter lacks an identifiable TATA motif, and utilizes at least 11 clustered start sites. Promoter function was analyzed by transient assays in rat C6 glioma cells, which were shown to express the endogenous 5-HT2 receptor(More)
The goals of a T cell-based vaccine for HIV are to reduce viral peak and setpoint and prevent transmission. While it has been relatively straightforward to induce CD8(+) T cell responses against immunodominant T cell epitopes, it has been more difficult to broaden the vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell response against subdominant T cell epitopes. Additionally,(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate five different lifting tasks based on subjective and biomechanical estimates of stress at the lower back. Subjective estimates were obtained immediately after the subjects performed the lifting tasks. Rankings for different tasks were obtained according to the perceived level of stress at the lower back. A(More)