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The evolution of disease resistance and immune function may be limited if increased immunocompetence comes at the expense of other fitness-determining traits. Both the maintenance of an immune system and the deployment of an immune response can be costly, and the observed costs may be evaluated as either physiological or evolutionary in origin. Evolutionary(More)
Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history "balance" between immunity and other fitness traits in a(More)
Bombus terrestris queens may contract infections of the trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi from their natal nests; alternatively, the queens may also become infected after leaving their natal nests while foraging on contaminated flowers. We expected that, because C. bombi adapts to the natal colony during the previous generation, C. bombi infections from(More)
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