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The present experiments compared the inhibitory effects of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) and botulinum toxin D (BoNT-D) on neurally evoked contractions of rat bladder strips. We examined the effect of fatigue (trains of 100 shocks at 20Hz every 20s for 10min) followed by non-fatigue stimulation (trains of 100 shocks at 20Hz every 100s for 20min) on the onset(More)
PURPOSE In recent years there has been tremendous excitement over the use of botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) to treat various urethral and bladder dysfunctions. BTX is the most potent, naturally occurring toxin known to mankind. Why, then, would a urologist want to use this agent to poison the bladder or urethral sphincter? MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed(More)
Organ development is a complex process involving the coordination of cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenetic events. Using a screen to identify genes that function coordinately with lin-35/Rb during animal development, we have isolated a weak loss-of-function (LOF) mutation in pha-1. lin-35; pha-1 double mutants are defective at an early step(More)
OBJECTIVES To present clinical evidence with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) suggesting an antinociceptive role in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). Intriguing evidence in a somatic pain model has suggested that BTX-A injection may have an antinociceptive effect on both acute and chronic (inflammatory) pain. METHODS Thirteen female patients (6 in the(More)
PURPOSE We conducted a 2-stage, multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial of 100 and 300 unit doses of onabotulinum toxin A to treat the lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Men 50 years old or older with clinically diagnosed benign prostatic hyperplasia, American Urological Association(More)
The effects of mechanoreceptor stimulation and subsequent ATP release in spinal cord injured and normal bladders was examined to demonstrate if spinal cord injury (SCI) modulates the basal or evoked release of ATP from bladder urothelium and whether intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) administration inhibits urothelial ATP release, a measure of sensory(More)
Botulinum toxins can effectively and selectively disrupt and modulate neurotransmission in striated muscle. Recently, urologists have become interested in the use of these toxins in patients with detrusor overactivity and other urological disorders. In both striated and smooth muscle, botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is internalized by presynaptic neurons after(More)
The purpose of this paper was to simultaneously examine changes in urothelial ATP and NO release in normal and spinal cord injured animals as well as in spinal cord injured animals treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A). Furthermore we correlated changes in transmitter release with functional changes in bladder contraction frequency, and determined(More)
Tremendous excitement has been generated by the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of various types of urethral and bladder dysfunction over the past several years. Botulinum toxin is the most lethal naturally occurring toxin known to mankind. Why, then, would an urologist want to use this agent to poison the bladder or urethral sphincter? In this(More)