Christopher P. Smith

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Wing pattern evolution in Heliconius butterflies provides some of the most striking examples of adaptation by natural selection. The genes controlling pattern variation are classic examples of Mendelian loci of large effect, where allelic variation causes large and discrete phenotypic changes and is responsible for both convergent and highly divergent wing(More)
OBJECTIVES To present clinical evidence with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) suggesting an antinociceptive role in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). Intriguing evidence in a somatic pain model has suggested that BTX-A injection may have an antinociceptive effect on both acute and chronic (inflammatory) pain. METHODS Thirteen female patients (6 in the(More)
Botulinum toxins can effectively and selectively disrupt and modulate neurotransmission in striated muscle. Recently, urologists have become interested in the use of these toxins in patients with detrusor overactivity and other urological disorders. In both striated and smooth muscle, botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is internalized by presynaptic neurons after(More)
OBJECTIVES To detail, in a review, one institution's 6-year experience using botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in the bladder and urethra in 110 patients for a variety of lower urinary tract disorders. METHODS A total of 110 patients (35 men and 75 women, age range 19 to 82 years) received injections of BTX-A into the bladder (n = 42) or urethra (n = 68). Voiding(More)
The present experiments compared the inhibitory effects of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) and botulinum toxin D (BoNT-D) on neurally evoked contractions of rat bladder strips. We examined the effect of fatigue (trains of 100 shocks at 20Hz every 20s for 10min) followed by non-fatigue stimulation (trains of 100 shocks at 20Hz every 100s for 20min) on the onset(More)
The effects of mechanoreceptor stimulation and subsequent ATP release in cyclophosphamide evoked chronic bladder inflammation was examined to demonstrate: (1) whether inflammation modulates ATP release from bladder urothelium and (2) whether intravesical botulinum toxin A administration inhibits urothelial ATP release, a measure of sensory nerve activation.(More)
The effects of mechanoreceptor stimulation and subsequent ATP release in spinal cord injured and normal bladders was examined to demonstrate if spinal cord injury (SCI) modulates the basal or evoked release of ATP from bladder urothelium and whether intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) administration inhibits urothelial ATP release, a measure of sensory(More)
The purpose of this paper was to simultaneously examine changes in urothelial ATP and NO release in normal and spinal cord injured animals as well as in spinal cord injured animals treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A). Furthermore we correlated changes in transmitter release with functional changes in bladder contraction frequency, and determined(More)
Organ development is a complex process involving the coordination of cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenetic events. Using a screen to identify genes that function coordinately with lin-35/Rb during animal development, we have isolated a weak loss-of-function (LOF) mutation in pha-1. lin-35; pha-1 double mutants are defective at an early step(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effects and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin chloride on the frequency of voiding and catheterization and urodynamic capacity in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with defined detrusor hyperreflexia. METHODS This was a 12-week, prospective, dose-titration study of extended-release oxybutynin (oxybutynin XL).(More)