Black skin tone preferences were explored among 98 black school-age children. Findings suggest a preference for honey brown rather than lighter or darker skin tones. Concept analysis generated six categories of reasons for the choice, identifying differences related to age and gender.
In this article, I consider the status of several statements analogous to the Church-Turing thesis that assert that some definition of algorithmic randomness captures the intuitive conception of randomness. I argue that we should not only reject the theses that have appeared in the algorithmic randomness literature, but more generally that we ought not… (More)
A fruitful way of obtaining meaningful, possibly concrete, algorithmically random numbers is to consider a potential behaviour of a Turing machine and its probability with respect to a measure (or semi-measure) on the input space of binary codes. In this work we obtain characterizations of the algorithmically random reals in higher randomness classes, as… (More)
Consider a universal Turing machine that produces a partial or total function (or a binary stream), based on the answers to the binary queries that it makes during the computation. We study the probability that the machine will produce a computable function when it is given a random stream of bits as the answers to its queries. Surprisingly, we find that… (More)
Kolmogorov complexity measures the algorithmic complexity of a finite binary string σ in terms of the length of the shortest description σ * of σ. Traditionally, the length of a string is taken to measure the amount of information contained in the string. However, we may also view the length of σ as a measure of the cost of producing σ, which permits one to… (More)
Although algorithmic randomness with respect to various non-uniform computable measures is well-studied, little attention has been paid to algorithmic randomness with respect to computable trivial measures, where a measure μ on 2 ω is trivial if the support of μ consists of a countable collection of sequences. In this article, it is shown that there is much… (More)
In this article, I discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov drew upon von Mises' work in addressing the problem as to why probability is applicable to events in the real world, which I refer to as the applicability problem. In particular, I highlight the role of randomness in Kolmogorov's account, and I argue that this role differs significantly from the role… (More)