Christopher P. Locher

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Similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of humans, the natural history of HIV-2 infection in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) is a slow and chronic disease that generally takes several years before an AIDS-like condition develops. To shorten the amount of time to the development of disease, we performed five serial passages of(More)
Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) relies on a specialized set of metabolic pathways to support growth in macrophages. By conducting an extensive, unbiased chemical screen to identify small molecules that inhibit Mtb metabolism within macrophages, we identified a significant number of novel compounds that limit Mtb growth in macrophages and in medium(More)
Seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced to the precursor of the merozoite surface antigens (MSA-1 or gp195) using the Plasmodium falciparum Uganda-Palo Alto isolate. Three mAbs (CE2, DB8, and EB2) reacted with epitopes on the 83-kDa N-terminal processing fragment by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled proteins and in immunoblots of native and(More)
We employed directed molecular evolution to improve the cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) envelope glycoproteins. The DNA encoding the E1 and E2 proteins from VEEV subtypes IA/B and IE, Mucambo virus (MUCV), and eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses (EEEV and WEEV) were recombined in vitro to(More)
Immunization using genetic expression libraries may be an improvement over conventional DNA immunization using a single gene because more epitopes are simultaneously presented to the immune system. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an HIV-2 vaccine made from a genomic expression library in baboons. We found that HIV-2 expression library(More)
Previous studies indicated that inhibition of efflux pumps augments tuberculosis therapy. In this study, we used timcodar (formerly VX-853) to determine if this efflux pump inhibitor could increase the potency of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in in vitro and in vivo combination studies. When used alone, timcodar weakly(More)
HIV-specific antibodies and CD8+ T cell antiviral responses were evaluated in three human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) gp120 vaccine recipients who later became infected with HIV-1. Titers of neutralizing antibody to the HIV-1(SF2) vaccine isolate were boosted, but titers of antibody to the autologous infecting viruses were never high and required at(More)
UNLABELLED Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of death due to the lack of treatment accessibility, HIV coinfection, and drug resistance. Development of new drugs targeting previously unexplored pathways is essential to shorten treatment time and eliminate persistent M. tuberculosis. A promising biochemical pathway which may be targeted to kill(More)
We have previously shown that baboons (Papio cynocephalus) can be persistently infected with HIV-2 and some baboons progress to an AIDS-like disease with a CD4+ T cell decline, cachexia, alopecia, and Kaposi's sarcoma-like fibromatosis. In this study, we found that a new virus isolate, HIV-2UC12, replicated to high levels in baboon peripheral blood(More)