Christopher P. Locher

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) relies on a specialized set of metabolic pathways to support growth in macrophages. By conducting an extensive, unbiased chemical screen to identify small molecules that inhibit Mtb metabolism within macrophages, we identified a significant number of novel compounds that limit Mtb growth in macrophages and in medium(More)
We determined if the genetic adjuvants, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and B7-2, could improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of an HIV-2 DNA vaccine. The vaccine consisted of the HIV-2 tat, nef, gag, and env genes synthesized using optimized codons and formulated with cationic liposomes. Baboons (Papio cynocephalus hamadryas)(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze the CD8+ cell antiviral immune response in HIV-2-infected baboons. DESIGN Baboons were infected with clinical isolates of HIV-2, CD8+ cells were isolated from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated baboon peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These cells were cultured with PHA-stimulated CD4+ cells acutely infected with HIV-2 at(More)
Type I IFNs are unusually pleiotropic cytokines that bind to a single heterodimeric receptor and have potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immune modulatory activities. The diverse effects of the type I IFNs are of differential therapeutic importance; in cancer therapy, an enhanced antiproliferative effect may be beneficial, whereas in the therapy of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess disease progression in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) that were infected with two human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) isolates. METHODS Eight baboons were inoculated intravenously with either HIV-2UC2 or HIV-2UC14 and were followed for a 2- to 7-year period of observation. RESULTS Six of 8 baboons showed lymphadenopathy and other(More)
In an effort to develop a more effective DNA immunization strategy for HIV, we synthesized an HIV-2 env DNA vaccine and delivered it in a novel polycationic adjuvant formulation that forms nanoparticles in solution and enhances protein expression. The polycationic adjuvant contained imidazole moieties to facilitate endosomal escape. Nanoparticles containing(More)
Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals show evidence of infection by only one strain of the virus despite possible frequent contact with multiple strains. The reason(s) for the emergence of a dominant strain of virus in HIV-infected people and the mechanism(s) which prevent other strains from establishing an infection is not known. In(More)
An animal model was used to assess whether resistance to superinfection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can exist in vivo. Asymptomatic baboons (Papio cynocephalus), previously infected with HIV-2, were first challenged with homologous virus (HIV-2UC2 or HIV-2UC14) and later with heterologous virus (HIV-2UC12). After both virus inoculations, either(More)
The efficacy of vaccines can be improved by increasing their immunogenicity, broadening their crossprotective range, as well as by developing immunomodulators that can be coadministered with the vaccine antigen. One technology that can be applied to each of these aspects of vaccine development is MolecularBreeding directed molecular evolution. Essentially,(More)
DNA shuffling and screening technologies recombine and evolve genes in vitro to rapidly obtain molecules with improved biological activity and fitness. In this way, genes from related strains are bred like plants or livestock and their successive progeny are selected. These technologies have also been called molecular breeding-directed molecular evolution.(More)