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Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 and 2 genes (GSTO1, GSTO2), residing within an Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (AD and PD) linkage region, have diverse functions including mitigation of oxidative stress and may underlie the pathophysiology of both diseases. GSTO polymorphisms were previously reported to associate with risk and age-at-onset of these(More)
Little is known about the epidemiology and mode of transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Analyses of an engorged female Ixodes dammini tick removed from an HGE patient and 101 field-collected I. dammini and Dermacentor variabilis from three Wisconsin counties for Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila/Ehrlichia equi(More)
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia(More)
Genetic variants that modify brain gene expression may also influence risk for human diseases. We measured expression levels of 24,526 transcripts in brain samples from the cerebellum and temporal cortex of autopsied subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD, cerebellar n=197, temporal cortex n=202) and with other brain pathologies (non-AD, cerebellar n=177,(More)
Conventional methods for the identification and characterization of clinical isolates of bacterial pathogens sometimes fall short when such isolates exhibit unusual phenotypic profiles. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly enhanced the ability of the microbiologist to determine the identity of a bacterial isolate. Given the relative(More)
A human-derived strain of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, a recently described emerging rickettsial disease, has been established by serial blood passage in mouse hosts. Larval deer ticks acquired infection by feeding upon such mice and efficiently transmitted the ehrlichiae after molting to nymphs, thereby demonstrating vector competence. The(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a growing class of small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in both plants and animals. Studies have shown that miRNAs play a critical role in human cancer and they can influence the level of cell proliferation and apoptosis by modulating gene expression. Currently, methods for the(More)
In human Lyme disease, symptoms with widely varying levels of severity have been observed. A mouse model of Lyme disease has been developed which allows analysis of mice with mild, moderate, and severe pathologies after inoculation with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. To determine whether the differences in symptoms reflect differences in the number of(More)
To examine in detail Borrelia burgdorferi strain diversity in the United States, 186 isolates from human, tick, and rodent sources were analyzed from multiple distinct geographic regions of the United States and abroad. Strains were characterized by genomic macrorestriction analysis and ospA and 23S rDNA gene sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis.(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) identified 9 novel risk loci. Discovery of functional variants within genes at these loci is required to confirm their role in Alzheimer disease (AD). Single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence gene expression (eSNPs) constitute an important class of(More)