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The extent and pattern of gray matter (GM) demyelination in the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been examined in detail. Human autopsy material was obtained from 36 MS cases and 12 controls. Transverse sections were taken from five levels of the spinal cord (upper cervical, lower cervical, upper thoracic, lower thoracic and lumbar levels) and(More)
BACKGROUND Substantial grey matter (GM) demyelination occurs in both the cerebral cortex and spinal cord in multiple sclerosis (MS). GM demyelination also occurs in the cerebellar cortex and the deep GM nuclei of the brain. However, no study has made a direct "within subject" comparison of the extent of GM pathology between these regions. AIM To examine(More)
BACKGROUND Post-mortem studies demonstrate extensive grey matter demyelination in MS, both in the brain and in the spinal cord. However the clinical significance of these plaques is unclear, largely because they are grossly underestimated by MR imaging at conventional field strengths. Indeed post-mortem MR studies suggest the great majority of lesions in(More)
The objective of this study was to assess neuronal pathology in the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis (MS), both within myelinated and demyelinated tissue. Autopsy material was obtained from 38 MS cases and 21 controls. Transverse sections were taken from three spinal cord levels and stained using Luxol Fast Blue/Cresyl Violet and myelin protein(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the relative contributions of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) volume loss to spinal cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN Postmortem study of transverse sections obtained from 5 levels of the spinal cord, with measurement of the cross-sectional GM and WM areas. SETTING Department of Neuropathology, University of(More)
The spinal cord is commonly affected by acute demyelinating lesions, chronic tissue loss and atrophy in multiple sclerosis, and is a clinically eloquent site. Historically, however, more attention has been focussed on the analysis and contribution of brain lesions. In this review, we discuss some of the key findings from MRI analysis and histopathological(More)
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the(More)
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