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Changes in small bowel function early in infancy in developing countries are increasingly being demonstrated, probably accompanied by altered mucosal architecture in most individuals, including reduced enterocyte mass and evidence of immune activation and inflammation in the mucosa. These alterations appear to be the result of factors of uncertain nature in(More)
Stunting is common in young children in developing countries, and is associated with increased morbidity, developmental delays, and mortality. Its complex pathogenesis likely involves poor intrauterine and postnatal nutrition, exposure to microbes, and the metabolic consequences of repeated infections. Acquired enteropathy affecting both gut structure and(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of a fish oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA PNALD can be a lethal complication in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). ILE based on soybean oil administered with parenteral(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the natural history of intestinal failure (IF) among 14 pediatric centers during the intestinal transplantation era. STUDY DESIGN The Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and outcome data for a multicenter cohort of infants with IF. Entry criteria included infants <12 months(More)
Acute gastroenteritis remains a common illness among infants and children throughout the world. Among children in the United States, acute diarrhea accounts for >1.5 million outpatient visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and approximately 300 deaths/year. In developing countries, diarrhea is a common cause of mortality among children aged <5 years, with an(More)
BACKGROUND The International Serial Transverse Enteroplasty (STEP) Data Registry is a voluntary online database created in 2004 to collect information on patients undergoing the STEP procedure. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors that are significantly associated with transplantation or death or attainment of enteral autonomy after(More)
UNLABELLED Weight loss and changes in growth are noted in children treated with interferon alpha (IFN-α). The aim of this study was to prospectively determine changes in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and body composition during and after treatment of children with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Children treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the burden of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in a HIV-infected population and explore the demographic and clinical factors associated with the occurrence of pediatric TB. DESIGN Longitudinal analysis of a cohort of HIV-infected children. METHODS The endpoint of the study was clinically diagnosed TB. Cox proportional hazard regression(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine whether serum citrulline (CIT), an amino acid produced by small bowel enterocytes, was associated with clinical and biochemical markers of gastrointestinal function in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). METHODS We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 26 children to define(More)