Christopher P Downing

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Since the discovery of the causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine to prevent high-risk HPV infections have been at the forefront of modern medical research. HPV causes 530,000 cervical cancer cases worldwide, which is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies(More)
BACKGROUND Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is generally considered a rare illness in adults. Classically, HFMD has been strongly associated with coxsackievirus strain A16 and enterovirus 71. The coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) strain has been linked to severe worldwide outbreaks since 2008. CVA6 is associated with a more severe and profound course of disease,(More)
BACKGROUND Monoclonal antibodies known as biologic agents specifically targeted against interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-17A (IL-17), and interleukin-23 (IL-23) have been the focus of research for moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis in recent years. OBJECTIVES To discuss the immune-mediated model of psoriasis and to summarize current knowledge(More)
INTRODUCTION Varicella zoster virus is a highly contagious virus that causes a primary infection known as varicella (chickenpox) that may reactivate years later to cause herpes zoster (HZ or shingles). After shingles heal, patients may develop post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), neuropathic pain syndrome that can cause significant suffering for years and is(More)
Non-melanoma skin cancers represent a major cause of morbidity after organ transplantation. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the most common cutaneous malignancies seen in this population, with a 65-100 fold greater incidence in organ transplant recipients compared to the general population. In recent years, human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta genus(More)
Granulomatous diseases are caused by multiple infectious and noninfectious causes. Deep fungal infections can present in the skin or extracutaneously, most commonly with lung manifestations. An Azole or amphotericin B is the universal treatment. Blastomycosis-like pyoderma is a clinically similar condition, which is caused by a combination of(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses; some oncogenic ones can cause different types of cancer, in particular cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for RNA interference (RNAi) based cancer therapies, because the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that cause cervical cancer are expressed only in cancerous(More)
In the past three decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The currently accepted theory is that T-cell mediated immune dysregulation triggers keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriasis. Recent research indicates that the Th17/interleukin (IL)-23 pathway plays a prominent role in the amplification phase of(More)
We present a case of a 60-year-old woman who, after using a blemish cream purchased at a health store, presented to our clinic with a large eschar on the right neck. The active ingredient in this cream was found to be Sanguinaria canadensis, a known escharotic. This substance is popularly marketed as a natural remedy for a host of skin diseases such as(More)