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This study examined the regulation of apolipoprotein E (apoE) by 17beta-estradiol (E2) in brain glia, using rats with regular ovulatory cycles as an in vivo model and cultured astrocytes and mixed glia as in vitro models. Two brain regions were examined which had demonstrated transient synaptic remodeling during the estrous cycle. In the hippocampal CA1(More)
Estrogen replacement therapy appears to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms for this action are incompletely known. We show how the enhancement of synaptic sprouting by estradiol (E2) in response to an entorhinal cortex (EC) lesion model of AD may operate via an apolipoprotein E (apoE)-dependent mechanism. In wild-type (WT) mice,(More)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression shows cyclic variation in the rat hypothalamus and hippocampus during the normal estrous cycle. To elucidate the role of transcription in the regulation of GFAP, we examined levels of GFAP intron 1 by in situ hybridization in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of normal, cycling rats. On the afternoon of(More)
Elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is associated with astrocyte activation during responses to injury in the CNS. Because transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are released during neural responses to injury and because these cytokines also modulate GFAP mRNA levels, it is of interest to(More)
Age and estrogen treatment influenced fiber outgrowth and compensatory neuronal sprouting after unilateral entorhinal cortex lesions (ECL) which model Alzheimer disease-like deafferentation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In young F344 rats (3 months old), ovariectomy (OVX) decreased reactive fiber outgrowth by 60%. Sprouting in middle-aged rats(More)
The gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was compared for CpG sites that are potential locations of methylated cytosine (mC). GFAP sequences in the 5'-upstream promoter and in exon 1 of rat, mouse, and human showed extensive similarity in the locations of CpG sites in the promoter and in exon 1, implying conservation. The methylation of mC at 9(More)
Neuronal remodeling in response to deafferenting lesions in the brain can be enhanced by estradiol (E2). Astrocytes are among the targets of E2 in complex interactions with neurons and may support or inhibit neuronal remodeling. In ovariectomized female rats given entorhinal cortex lesions, E2 replacement inhibited the increase of glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Premarin, which contains several equine estrogens, as well as estradiol (E2) as a minor component, is widely used for replacement therapy of estrogen deficits, but little is known of its direct actions on brain cells. In mixed glial cultures, apolipoprotein E (apoE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are induced by estrogens. GFAP induction showed(More)
Age-related increases in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in many brain regions are observed in short- and long-lived mammals. Possible genomic mechanisms for the increase of GFAP mRNA and protein were studied in the hippocampus and cortex of male F344 rats and a longer-lived hybrid F1 (F344 x Brown Norway). No age-related changes(More)
The morphogenetic transition between yeast and filamentous forms of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways. How these pathways interact to orchestrate morphogenesis, however, has not been as well characterized. To address this question and to identify genes that interact with the Regulation of Ace2 and(More)