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Sand flies were collected in light traps and on oiled papers at four active case sites of human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica at Muruku Sublocation, Laikipia District, Kenya. Nearly 5,200 females of five species, including Phlebotomus guggisbergi, were dissected and examined for flagellates. Of 3,867 P. guggisbergi females collected at a(More)
BACKGROUND Safe, effective and inexpensive vaccines may be the most practical tool for control of any form of leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis produces a state of pre-immunition which is the underlying mechanism for prolonged immunity to re-infection. Low doses of parasites has been shown to be able to induce protection in mice. It is not known, however, how(More)
The extrinsic development of Leishmania major was observed in 2 man-biting sand flies, Phlebotomus duboscqi, a known vector, and Sergentomyia schwetzi, an assumed non-vector. Flies fed on a leishmanial lesion on the nose of a hamster were examined for infection at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hr and at approximately 24 hr intervals from day 3 to day 14(More)
The study was aimed at analyzing immunological cross-reactivity between Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani and possible cross-protection between the two parasite species in the vervet monkey model of the disease. Nine vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) from the institute animal colony were sued in the study. Five of the animals had been(More)
Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite that causes chronic cutaneous lesions that often leave disfiguring scars. Infections in mice have demonstrated that leishmanial vaccines that include interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant are able to induce protective immunity. In this study, we assessed the safety, immunopotency, and adjuvant potential of two doses(More)
An 18-month sandfly survey was conducted at 4 locations in Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. 3 collection techniques were used: aspiration, sticky paper trap, and light trap in sites selected because of their proximity to homes of visceral leishmaniasis patients diagnosed and treated within 6 months before the survey. Over 2000 female(More)
BACKGROUND New strategies for control of leishmaniasis is needed as chemotherapy using antimonial drugs is prolonged, expensive, associated with side effects and relapses. Vector control has limitations and a vaccine which may be the best approach is not available. OBJECTIVES To assess the level of inhibition of promastigote development and gut morphology(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Leishmaniasis is a growing health problem in many parts of the world. Efforts to find new chemotherapeutics for leishmaniasis remain a priority. This study was carried out to determine the effect of combination and monotherapies using plant extracts and herbicides on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. METHODS The herbicides(More)
The ability of antibodies in bloodmeals of mice and hamsters immunized with Leishmania major subcellular fractions and sandfly (Phlebotomus duboscqi) gut antigens to inhibit development of L. major in its vector P. duboscqi was examined. Antibodies from animals immunized with either L. major subcellular fractions alone or sandfly gut antigen alone were not(More)
The possibility that salivary gland lysates of Phlebotomus duboscqi are able to attract vertebrate monocytes was investigated. In vitro studies showed that salivary gland lysates of P. duboscqi, the vector of Leishmania major in Kenya, are chemotactic to mouse peritoneal monocytes. This attraction of monocytes by vector salivary gland lysates may form part(More)