Christopher N. Wyatt

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Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores represents an important cell signalling process that is regulated, in mammalian cells, by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)), cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). InsP(3) and cyclic ADP ribose cause the release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stores(More)
Inhibitors of mitochondrial energy metabolism have long been known to be potent stimulants of the carotid body, yet their mechanism of action remains obscure. We have therefore investigated the effects of rotenone, myxothiazol, antimycin A, cyanide (CN(-)) and oligomycin on isolated carotid body type I cells. All five compounds caused a rapid rise in(More)
Specialized O2-sensing cells exhibit a particularly low threshold to regulation by O2 supply and function to maintain arterial pO2 within physiological limits. For example, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction optimizes ventilation-perfusion matching in the lung, whereas carotid body excitation elicits corrective cardio-respiratory reflexes. It is generally(More)
1. Ca(2+)-activated K+ (K+Ca) channels in neonatal rat type I carotid body cells were studied using single channel patch clamp techniques. In outside-out patches, using symmetrical 120 mM [K+] solutions, channels were observed with a slope conductance of 190 pS and a reversal potential of 0 mV. Reducing [K+]o to 5 mM shifted the reversal potential as(More)
In arterial myocytes the Ca(2+) mobilizing messenger NAADP evokes spatially restricted Ca(2+) bursts from a lysosome-related store that are subsequently amplified into global Ca(2+) waves by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Lysosomes facilitate this process by forming clusters that(More)
Early detection of an O2 deficit in the bloodstream is essential to initiate corrective changes in the breathing pattern of mammals. Carotid bodies serve an essential role in this respect; their type I cells depolarize when O2 levels fall, causing voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. Subsequent neurosecretion elicits increased afferent chemosensory fiber discharge to(More)
Vital homeostatic mechanisms monitor O2 supply and adjust respiratory and circulatory function to meet demand. The pulmonary arteries and carotid bodies are key systems in this respect. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) aids ventilation-perfusion matching in the lung by diverting blood flow from areas with an O2 deficit to those rich in O2, while a(More)
The actions of two structurally related tricyclic antidepressants on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were investigated in human neuroblastoma (SY-SY5Y) cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Both desipramine and imipramine reversibly inhibited inward currents evoked by application of the nicotinic receptor agonist(More)
Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones. Transmitter release is dependent on voltage-gated Ca2+ entry which is evoked by membrane depolarization. This excitatory response to hypoxia is initiated by inhibition of specific O2 sensitive K+ channels, of(More)
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) blocks hypoxic vasoconstriction in the pulmonary vasculature. Because one of the actions of DPI is the inhibition of NADPH oxidase, this has led to the suggestion that NADPH oxidase acts as an oxygen tension sensor in pulmonary smooth muscle cells. We investigated the effects of DPI on potassium and calcium currents in freshly(More)