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The nervous mechanisms that generate swallowing are still largely unknown. It has been suggested that a central pattern generator that contains a serial network of linked neurons must produce the successive excitation of motoneurons (Mns) and then the sequential activation of muscle through excitatory connections. Inhibitory connections have also been(More)
Mastication and swallowing are two tightly integrated components of food intake behavior. We investigated the effects of stimulating the chewing area of the fronto-orbital cortex (CCx) on some muscles and medullary interneurons (Ins) or motoneurons (Mns) active during swallowing. For the purpose of comparison, the lingual nerve (LN) was also stimulated(More)
BACKGROUND Helical computed tomography (HCT) scan is the preferred modality for diagnosing fractures of the cervical spine in blunt trauma. We hypothesize that HCT can be used as a screening tool for isolated ligamentous injury (LI) in blunt trauma. METHODS A prospective, consecutive series study design was used to include patients that could not have(More)
This paper presents a method to evaluate the mapping error present in point cloud terrain maps created using robotic vehicles and range sensors. This work focuses on mapping environments where no a priori ground truth is available and self consistency is the only available check against false artifacts and errors. The proposed error measure is based on a(More)
1. The action of adrenaline, noradrenaline and efferent sympathetic fibres on the smooth muscle of the lower oesophageal sphincter (l.o.s.) was studied in vivo on the anaesthetized cat and in vitro with the sucrose gap method. 2. Adrenaline and noradrenaline produce a marked depolarization of the circular muscle of the l.o.s. This effect is suppressed by(More)
1. The effects of vagal efferent fibre stimulation on the smooth muscle of the lower oesophageal sphincter have been studied on the anaesthetized animal and on the isolated and perfused organ.2. In both muscle layers (longitudinal and circular) vagal stimulation elicits two types of electromyographic (e.m.g.) potentials: (a) excitatory junction potentials(More)
The aim of this work was to characterize the discharge pattern of vagal efferent fibers supplying the stomach, and the modifications of this pattern induced by stimulation of oesophageal or intestinal receptors. The experiments were performed on dogs in which the central end of the left thoracic vagus had been sutured to the peripheral end of the left(More)