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There is growing recognition of the important roles played by predators in regulating ecosystems and sustaining biodiversity. Much attention has focused on the consequences of predator-regulation of herbivore populations, and associated trophic cascades. However apex predators may also control smaller 'mesopredators' through intraguild interactions. Removal(More)
Ecologists seek to understand patterns of distribution and abundance of species. Studies of distribution often use occurrence data to build models of the environmental niche of a species. Environmental suitability (ES) derived from such models may be used to predict the potential distributions of species. The ability of such models to predict spatial(More)
Causes of extinction of vertebrates during the Holocene of mainland Australia: arrival of the dingo, or human impact? Abstract: The arrival of the dingo in mainland Australia is believed to have caused the extinction of three native vertebrates: the thylacine, the Tasmanian devil and the Tasmanian native hen. The dingo is implicated in these extinctions(More)
Measuring trends in the size of prehistoric populations is fundamental to our understanding of the demography of ancient people and their responses to environmental change. Archaeologists commonly use the temporal distribution of radiocarbon dates to reconstruct population trends, but this can give a false picture of population growth because of the loss of(More)
Plants contain a variety of chemical defenses that strongly affect feeding rates in captive mammals, but their effects on the fitness of wild herbivores are largely unknown. This is because the complexity of defensive compounds, and herbivores' counteradaptations to them, make their effects in the wild difficult to measure. We show how tannins interact with(More)
Giant vertebrates dominated many Pleistocene ecosystems. Many were herbivores, and their sudden extinction in prehistory could have had large ecological impacts. We used a high-resolution 130,000-year environmental record to help resolve the cause and reconstruct the ecological consequences of extinction of Australia's megafauna. Our results suggest that(More)
Myositis ossificans is a self-limiting, benign ossifying lesion that can affect any type of soft tissue, including subcutaneous fat, tendons, and nerves. It is most commonly found in muscle as a solitary lesion. Ossifying soft-tissue lesions historically have been inconsistently classified. Fundamentally, myositis ossificans can be categorized into(More)
Extinctions of megafauna species during the Late Quaternary dramatically reduced the global diversity of mammals. There is intense debate over the causes of these extinctions, especially regarding the extent to which humans were involved. Most previous analyses of this question have focused on chronologies of extinction and on the archaeological evidence(More)
BACKGROUND Life-threatening disorders of heart rhythm may arise during infancy and can result in the sudden and tragic death of a child. We performed exome sequencing on 2 unrelated infants presenting with recurrent cardiac arrest to discover a genetic cause. METHODS AND RESULTS We ascertained 2 unrelated infants (probands) with recurrent cardiac arrest(More)
The females of many species of primates settle for life within the home ranges of their mothers, whereas males disperse as immatures. According to the theory of sex allocation, the costs incurred by mothers through local competition for resources with their philopatric daughters should favour the evolution of male-biased sex ratios at birth. I report here(More)