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Memory for visually presented items is impaired by speech that is played as an irrelevant background. The paper presents the view that changing state of the auditory material is an important prerequisite for this disruption. Four experiments studied the effects of sounds varying in complexity in an attempt to establish which features of changing state in(More)
In each of three experiments subjects were required to point to the location of a discrete tactile stimulus applied to the underside of the forearm after delays of 10, 15, 20, & 30 seconds. Experiment 1 showed that recall accuracy was impaired independently by both concurrent articulatory suppression and increased delay between stimulation and recall.(More)
OBJECTIVES The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. METHODS In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of(More)
Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating(More)
Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list. Both experiments failed to show effects of chewing gum at learning or recall, nor did they suggest that chewing gum produces a context-dependent memory effect. This was true when extraneous contextual cues at learning and recall(More)
The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both(More)